The Paleo concept is new for most people and this newness can spark many questions. We like people to not only read about and educate themselves on this topic but also to “get in and do it.” Experience is perhaps the best teacher and often cuts through any confusion surrounding this way of eating. Now, all that considered, there are still some common counter arguments to the Paleo diet that happen with sufficient frequency that a whole paper was written on it. Enjoy: Evolutionary Health Promotion. A consideration of common counter-arguments.
Nourishing Traditions: The Cookbook that Challenges Politically Correct Nutrition and the Diet Dictocrat by Mary G. Enig, Ph.D. and Sally Fallon. The premise is the culinary traditions of our ancestors, and the food choices and preparation techniques of healthy nonindustrialized peoples, should serve as the model for contemporary eating habits. However, they push whole grains and dairy, which aren't Paleolithic.
As you might expect from the previous paragraph, eating plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables naturally leads to higher fiber intake. Dietary fiber is essential for good health, and despite what you’ve probably heard, whole grains aren’t the place to find it. Non-starchy vegetables contain eight times more fiber than whole grains and 31 times more fiber than refined grains. Even fruits contain twice as much fiber as whole grains and seven times more fiber than refined grains!

Overall, the diet is high in protein, moderate in fat (mainly from unsaturated fats), low-moderate in carbohydrate (specifically restricting high glycemic index carbohydrates), high in fiber, and low in sodium and refined sugars. [2] The monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats (including the omega-3 fats EPA and DHA) come from marine fish, avocado, olive oil, and nuts and seeds.
There is little argument over the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. They are chock-full of vitamins, minerals, fiber and antioxidants. The only caveat for paleo dieters is that some vegetables are starchy (e.g., potatoes) and some fruits are higher in sugar (e.g., bananas). So, if you are trying to lose weight or watch your blood sugar levels, eat these in moderation. In fact, potatoes are banned from some versions of the diet.
The Paleo diet is not a dogmatic approach to eating with no flexibility, room to cheat, or ability to self-experiment. In fact, a key tenet of the Paleo diet is recognizing bioindividuality and providing the broad education to help everyone understand the best choices but also figure out what works (and doesn’t work) for them as an individual.  Another key tenet is individual sustainability, meaning that you make the best choices as often as possible, but you don’t need to be perfect. Ideally, you’ll learn what your body needs to thrive and what it tolerates and then live somewhere in between (and if that means the occasional slice of birthday cake or ice cream, that’s okay! see Making Healthy Choices: What’s Your Currency?).
It’s easy to get plantains and bananas mixed up. While plantains are part of the banana family and the two look alike, plantains are not sweet, and instead are used mostly as a starchy vegetable. Think of plantain chips as veggie chips. They are often sliced and baked with olive oil and salt, creating a nice crunch. Lots of supermarkets carry different versions of plantain chips, but not all plantain chips are Paleo, so you’ll want to check the ingredients before buying.
If you’re craving toast or bread, you probably need more nitrogen. You can get that from high protein meats and fish. Don’t think of meat as a “snack”? Make some jerky. Even if you don’t have a dehydrator you can still make jerky. All you need to make jerky is a bit of time, some mild heat, and a dry environment. If you’ve been buying jerky, save yourself some loads of cash and make it yourself!
Paleo eating requires a lot of planning, prep time, and mental resolve. For instance, eating out on the diet isn't as simple as ordering chicken and a salad. Think: In what oil was the chicken cooked? Did any of the salad toppings come processed, canned, or packaged? "As with every elimination diet, it's just not doable long term," Dr. Ochner says. While weight loss is far from the sole purpose of eating paleo, going on and off of the diet can lead to big weight swings. Any yo-yo diet starts in weight loss from both muscle and fat, and usually ends with weight gain of all fat, which contributes to a slower metabolism and increased insulin resistance.
These chips are made from butternut squash, but you won’t be able to tell by the way they taste. They bake up so crispy and crunchy you’d swear it was a potato chip if you didn’t know any better. They are using gingerbread seasoning on these, which is an interesting choice for a snack, and sure to give your taste buds a new experience. Compared to most snacks you’ll enjoy the fact that these rank pretty well in terms of the amount of carbs they contain, as well as the calories. Not that you’re counting any of that stuff on Paleo, it’s just nice to know.
Your Vitality.  Even healthy individuals (without disease or in their later stages of life) have shown benefits from following a Paleo template. A study of 14 healthy volunteers (Österdahl et al, 2008) found that all participants experienced enhanced blood sugar regulation, an increase in vitamin and mineral status, decreased inflammation and weight, and lowered blood pressure.
Move over, Doritos; there’s a new ranch chip in town and it’s actually healthy for you. These kale chips are seasoned with zesty ranch flavor from dill, garlic, and lemon juice. Plus, they’re made with only clean ingredients, unlike Doritos (hello, MSG!). Although these chips do list sugar on the ingredients panel, it only comes in at 3 grams per 1-ounce serving.
But the Paleo diet bans more than just highly processed junk foods—in its most traditional form, it prohibits any kind of food unavailable to stone age hunter–gatherers, including dairy rich in calcium, grains replete with fiber, and vitamins and legumes packed with protein. The rationale for such constraint—in fact the entire premise of the Paleo diet—is, at best, only half correct. Because the human body adapted to life in the stone age, Paleo dieters argue—and because our genetics and anatomy have changed very little since then, they say—we should emulate the diets of our Paleo predecessors as closely as possible in order to be healthy. Obesity, heart disease, diabetes, cancer and many other "modern" diseases, the reasoning goes, result primarily from the incompatibility of our stone age anatomy with our contemporary way of eating.

Cordain explains that high intake of fruits and vegetables is one of best ways to reduce chances of cancer and heart disease. He notes that protein has twice the calorie burning effect of fat and carbs and is more satiating than both. He explains that starch, fats, sugars, and salts together cause us to keep eating. So if we limit our diet to fruits and vegetables and/or meat, we’ll stop eating when we’re full. And if you stop eating when you’re full, you’ll lose weight and won’t get fat. And as you lose weight, your cholesterol will improve (regardless of what you eat). This all makes sense and can’t really be disputed. If you want to lose weight, the Paleo diet will get you there and probably quickly. But Cordain’s hypothesis applied to long-term health falls short.
Of course, snacking is completely optional on a Paleo diet. In fact, many people end up naturally eating only two meals per day, but it doesn’t mean that snacking is a bad idea, especially if the snack only contains healthy ingredients and prevents you from indulging with bad foods. They can also be great when on the go or as something to eat post workout. Just remember that your snacks should respect the basic principles of Paleo. This means that most fruits and nuts should be consumed only in moderation. Most fruits are high in the sugar fructose, which is toxic in higher doses and most nuts are high in polyunsaturated fat (PUFA), especially the omega-6 PUFA. Refer to my article on nuts and seeds to know about the best choices. This also means that snacks containing mainly saturated fat or animal protein are usually great.
There are no hard and fast rules about when to eat, how much protein versus fat versus carbohydrates to eat (Paleo is not a low-carb diet, see Carbs Vs. Protein Vs. Fat: Insight from Hunter-Gatherers), and there’s even some foods (like high quality dairy, white rice and potatoes) which some people choose to include in their diets whereas others do not. This means that’s there’s room to experiment so you can figure out not just what makes you healthiest but also what makes you happiest and fits into your schedule and budget.

Our bodies need much more protein than the average person consumes. In fact, protein accounts for only 15 percent of the average person’s daily calories, while 19 to 35 percent of the average hunter-gatherer diet was comprised of protein. This was due to the high consumption of meat, seafood, and other animal products prevalent in contemporary approaches to Paleo eating.

These tomatoes are filled with the irresistible taste of buffalo chicken. Even though chicken wings are easy to make on the Paleo diet, it’s still a good idea to even them out by eating a vegetable along with them. Here you can get the taste of buffalo wings but in bite size form, with no bones, and no need to supplement it because the tomato has you covered. Plus you’re getting all of the benefits that come from eating tomatoes, and this snack will hold you over for quite some time.
These researchers point out that there are plenty of reasons to suggest that the low-fat-is-good-health hypothesis has now effectively failed the test of time. In particular, that we are in the midst of an obesity epidemic that started around the early 1980’s, and that this was coincident with the rise of the low-fat dogma. (Type 2 diabetes, the most common form of the disease, also rose significantly through this period.)
#1) If you’re not careful, this type of diet can get expensive. But as we know, with a little research, we can make eating healthy incredibly affordable. Admittedly, while I recommend eating organic fruits and veggies, free range chicken, and grass-fed beef whenever possible, these products can be a bit more expensive in conventional stores due to the processes needed to get them there.
Leftover chicken or turkey breast, pork chop, burger, or any meat with avocado/guacamole/guacachoke* smeared on top. You can just roast a pound or two of any kind of meat in the oven for 13 minutes or so and then have all that meat for snacks and meals for the week. Sometimes we make 3-pound hams in our smoker, slice it up, put it in a glass container and then I can just grab a piece of ham when I want it. Any meat will do!
Grass-fed meat is recommended on the paleo diet because it is leaner than meat from grain-fed animals and has more omega-3 fatty acids, the healthy fats that reduce inflammation in the body and protect your heart. A typical American diet is high in saturated and trans fats and lower in healthy poly- and monounsaturated fats, hence the paleo diet's emphasis on grass-fed meats, as well as seafood. 

"Snacks can seem like a challenge," when you go paleo, admits registered dietitian Sonya Angelone, a spokeswoman for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. That's why you should keep the ingredients for these quick and easy paleo snacks on hand. Because TBH, even if cavemen didn't eat snacks, well, they also wielded clubs on the regular, so things are just different now.
For most people the fact the Paleo diet delivers the best results is all they need. Improved blood lipids, weight loss, and reduced pain from autoimmunity is proof enough.  Many people however are not satisfied with blindly following any recommendations, be they nutrition or exercise related. Some folks like to know WHY they are doing something. Fortunately, the Paleo diet has stood not only the test of time, but also the rigors of scientific scrutiny.
Nutrition & Physical Degeneration by Dr. Weston Price's book puts to rest a lot of myths about diet, dental, physical, and emotional health, and presents the strongest case for a super-nutritious Native (or Paleo) Diet. His book outlines the conditions/causes for exceptional health. A classic that was first published in 1938. The Soil and Health Library has a Book Review by Steve Solomon. If you don't buy the book at least read the review. N.B. If you live in one of the countries where this book is now in the public domain, you can read it online. But not if you live in a country where it is still under copyright protection.
These cashew butter balls are made raw so you don’t have to bake them. They’re ready to eat after just an hour in the fridge. The good thing is that you can make many of them at once, and just eat them a bit at a time as you go through your week. Having snacks made ahead of time is really helpful when you’re trying to stick to any diet plan. These are so simple to make it’s just dates, cashews and cashew butter. Roll it into a ball and cool it off and they’re ready to nosh.
Here’s an interesting take on hummus, which is necessary because traditional hummus is not something you can have on Paleo. They’ve replaced the garbanzo beans (aka chickpeas) with a combination of zucchini and avocado, and the result is something that looks a lot like hummus, and tastes really good too. All of the other ingredients in hummus are present, like garlic, tahini, lemon juice, and cumin, so as long as you’re not a hummus snob you should be pleasantly surprised by this concoction. 

Similarly, it is never too late to improve the quality of your nutrition and health. For those mature-age tribe members, if you have a specific health condition or physical limitation it is important (and we strongly advise) to consult with your trusted and knowledgeable health care provider and be regularly monitored to ascertain your results. Nevertheless, it is never too late to improve the quality of your nutrition and health. As we age, the nutrient density of our diets should change but is always just as important as it is at any age. A Paleo diet will generally support every organ and system in the body; including the brain, cardiovascular, endocrine, immune and digestive - all of which tend to become compromised as we age in today’s world.
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These pizza bites don’t need a crust because they’re resting on a slice of uncured pepperoni or salami. This makes them a snack that you can make in a jiffy, because you don’t have to wait around for the crust to bake. It also helps give them a big pizza taste, even if you opt out of the optional organic mozzarella cheese. The sauce is the real kicker here, and it’s made using organic tomato sauce and the necessary ingredients to make it taste like a pizza. Drop a black olive slice right in the middle and these pizza bites are ready to consumption.

Protein is a staple of the caveman diet- specifically options that are grass-fed, wild caught or organic, as these options are often from animals raised in environments that encourage natural behavior. And because our ancestors didn't just live off chicken and beef, they hunted a wide variety of meat, the more variety you can add to your proteins, the better!
Joel Runyon is the founder of Ultimate Paleo Guide and CEO of Paleo Meal Plans. He's a precision nutrition, and Gym Jones Level 1 certified, and helped millions of people get healthy and lose weight since 2012. Joel is also an ultra runner and endurance athlete - and in 2017, he became the the youngest person to run an ultra marathon on every continent in the world to build 7 schools with Pencils of Promise in developing countries.Follow him on Twitter, Instagram, Athlinks and read his full bio here.
Palm nuts and heart (Mauritia flexuosa)Brazilian Teal (Amazonetta brasiliensis)Wild root "Yatsiro" (Canna edulis)Red Brocket deer (Mazama americana)Wild root "No'o" (Dioscorea)Wild root "Oyo" (Banisteriopsis)Armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus)Guava (Psidium guava)Yellow-spotted river turtle (Podocnemis unifilis)Wild root "Hewyna" (Calathea allouia)Mata Mata turtle (Chelus fimbriatus)Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris)Silver Mylosomma (Mylossoma duriventre)Iguana (Iguana iguana)Iguana (Iguana iguana)Orange (Citrus x sinensis)Roseate Spoonbill (Ajaja ajaja)Roseate Spoonbill (Ajaja ajaja)Collared peccary (Pecari tajacu)Wild rabbit (Sylvilagus varynaensis)Piranha (Serrasalmus)Trahira (Hoplias malabaricus)Collared anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla)Gold Tegu (Tupinambis teguixin)Mangoes (Mangifera)Wild legume "Chiga" (Campsiandra comosa)South American catfish (Pseudoplatystoma)Charichuelo (Garcinia madruno)Yellow-footed tortoise (Chelonoidis denticulata)Caiman (Caiman crocodilus)
The evolutionary discordance is incomplete, since it is based mainly on the genetic understanding of the human diet and a unique model of human ancestral diets, without taking into account the flexibility and variability of the human dietary behaviors over time.[27] Studies of a variety of populations around the world show that humans can live healthily with a wide variety of diets, and that in fact, humans have evolved to be flexible eaters.[28] Lactose tolerance is an example of how some humans have adapted to the introduction of dairy into their diet. While the introduction of grains, dairy, and legumes during the Neolithic revolution may have had some adverse effects on modern humans, if humans had not been nutritionally adaptable, these technological developments would have been dropped.[29]
Here’s a trail mix that will definitely sustain you for long periods of time, whether actually on a trail or stuck in a cubicle. You can munch on this mix of nuts, seeds, fruit, and coconut, and they’ve even included a little something sweet in the form of chocolate chips. They’re using the mini chocolate chips from Enjoy Life, which are Paleo approved because they’re dairy-free and gluten-free, and don’t use too much sugar, and it comes in the form of brown sugar. The end result is a sweet, crunchy, coconutty mixture that you’ll be happy to have at your side in all sorts of situations.

These zucchini rolls look so good you might not want to eat them. But you will! They’ve got a really unique list of ingredients that includes bacon, goat cheese, and sun-dried tomatoes, so you’re getting vitamins, minerals, protein, and more from each item used. Even the roll itself is nutritious, because it’s made from zucchini. These roll up into nice bite sizes which makes them great for solo popping or for serving to company. They’re also very easy to make, it’s just a matter of laying out the ingredients and then rolling them up. 

Vitamin D is the one supplement that would be paleo. At least it would be for those of us that don't live outside year round. You can have your D level measured. The low RDAs only prevent definable deficiences, not problems that take a long time to develop. Michael Holick, MD is a leading writer on this subject. This is a 10 page PDF: Vitamin D: importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis and its companion Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease [change PDF to 100% to read]. Or if you prefer, there is an hour video on YouTube.
Variety is very important because a variety of different foods supplies a variety of different nutrients.  By focusing on as many different whole foods as possible, it’s easier to achieve sufficient and synergistic quantities of all the nutrients, including potentially some that haven’t been discovered yet.  Easy strategies to increase variety include “eating the rainbow”, meaning that you choose fruits and vegetables of different colors, and “eating snout-to-tail”, meaning you eat every part of the animal, including offal. 

Healthy, delicious, and simple, the Paleo Diet is the diet you were designed to eat. If you want to lose weight—up to seventy-five pounds in six months—or if you want to attain optimal health, The Paleo Diet will change your life now. Dr. Loren Cordain, the world's leading expert on Paleolithic nutrition, demonstrates how by eating all the lean meats and fish, fresh fruits, and nonstarchy vegetables you want, you can lose weight and prevent and treat heart disease, cancer, osteoporosis, metabolic syndrome, and many other illnesses. Incorporating all the latest breakthroughs in Paleo nutrition research, this new edition of the bestselling The Paleo Diet includes six weeks of meal plans to get you started on the Paleo path to weight loss, weight control, increased energy, and lifelong health.
The theory is our bodies were designed, and still optimized, to eat what our Paleolithic ancestors ate. Like your hunger-gatherer forefathers, on Paleo you get all the meat from wild animals and unlimited fruits and vegetables you can eat. But no starchy vegetables (like potatoes), no legumes (like lentils or beans), no wheat, and no grains (like quinoa or corn) because those plants were invented by human beings during the agricultural revolution after our Paleolithic ancestors left the planet. You get one cheat day where you can eat whatever you want (“Occasional cheating and digressions may be just what you need to help you stick to the diet.”) No oil because it puts omega 6 and omega 3 ratios out of whack which should never exceed 2:1, except olive oil if you must. Dairy is also prohibited. And meat must come from animals that weren’t fed grains (like corn) because grains lead to inflammation and increased fat.
Our bodies need much more protein than the average person consumes. In fact, protein accounts for only 15 percent of the average person’s daily calories, while 19 to 35 percent of the average hunter-gatherer diet was comprised of protein. This was due to the high consumption of meat, seafood, and other animal products prevalent in contemporary approaches to Paleo eating.
For most people the fact the Paleo diet delivers the best results is all they need. Improved blood lipids, weight loss, and reduced pain from autoimmunity is proof enough.  Many people however are not satisfied with blindly following any recommendations, be they nutrition or exercise related. Some folks like to know WHY they are doing something. Fortunately, the Paleo diet has stood not only the test of time, but also the rigors of scientific scrutiny.

A more controversial argument for why legumes and common grains are avoided is because of their high phytic acid content, which is thought to reduce the absorption of certain nutrients like iron zinc and calcium (6). However, phytic acid is also found in many paleo approved foods (like almonds and hazelnuts), and is associated with some health benefits - like protective benefits against kidney stones, antioxidant properties and a suggested link to lower risk for colon cancer (7,8,9). Bottom line, there really isn't any evidenced based reason to avoid these foods because of phytic acid. 


This might be the healthiest recipe for nachos you’ll ever see, with apples standing in for tortilla chips, and healthy toppings. Of course it won’t replicate the savory and spicy joy of nachos, but they’re going for more of a salty, chocolatey, sweet experience with these, and mostly just referring to the way nachos are presented. The use of coconut, almond butter, and almonds means you’re going to get a nice nutty, crunchy, and sweet taste with each bite, making this a fun snack for movie night or anytime really.

I have 9 Paleo snack recipes when you’re on the go so you can stay on track with minimal effort. These are good ideas for work, snacks at home, children’s snacks, and vacations. Sometimes eating on the Paleo diet can be kind of hard. Especially when you are traveling or always on the go. And extra EXTRA hard if you are traveling with kids AND doing the paleo diet. Whew! I’m tired just thinking of it.
Kale chips are one of the healthiest snacks on the planet, and you don’t have to be a gourmet chef in order to get them right. The beauty of eating kale chips is that there’s no debate over whether they are Paleo or not. The ingredients are as simple as it gets: as much kale as you want with enough olive oil to coat them, and then some salt and pepper until you’re happy with the way they taste. Making them is super easy, and doesn’t take long from start to finish, maybe 20 minutes total. Eat these for a protein and fiber packed snack with lots of vitamins and minerals.
If you’ve been missing dairy after giving it up, then So Delicious’ dairy-free yogurt alternatives made with coconut milk are for you. The unsweetened vanilla doesn’t contain any added sugar so mix in some berries and chia seeds for added sweetness and texture. Just note that the yogurt alternatives are made with brown rice so if you’re strict paleo or on a Whole30, these aren’t for you.
Fat and Cholesterol are Good for You by Uffe Ravnskov is a new book which includes updated and simplified sections from his previous one (The Cholesterol Myths). Ravnskov also presents his own idea about the cause of heart disease, an idea that explains all the findings that do not fit with the present view. It is a powerful book. Also see his web site. The Amazon.com reviews average to 5 stars. Published January 26, 2009.
A 2015 study in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology found that 76 people who followed the Paleo diet for 60 days (as well as those who followed vegan, Mediterranean and DASH plans for the same length of time) lost an average of 9 pounds and showed improvement in their blood pressure levels. The effects were greatest and most sustained among people who also attended regular diet support group meetings.
The Paleo diet, also referred to as the caveman or Stone-Age diet, includes lean meats, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds. Proponents of the diet emphasize choosing low-glycemic fruits and vegetables. There is debate about several aspects of the Paleo diet: what foods actually existed at the time, the variation in diets depending on region (e.g., tropical vs. Arctic), how modern-day fruits and vegetables bear little resemblance to prehistoric wild versions, and disagreement among Paleo diet enthusiasts on what is included/excluded from the diet. Because of these differences, there is not one “true” Paleo diet.
Edible seaweeds are too often overlooked on a Paleo diet, but they boast an unparalleled nutritional profile. Among many essential nutrients, most kinds of seaweeds are loaded with iodine, an essential trace element to life. Iodine is especially important for the proper functioning of the thyroid gland. For most people on a SAD diet, the only reliable source of iodine is iodized salt. Many people on a Paleo diet decide to shun added salt completely or to consume unrefined sea salt instead of regular iodized table salt. This is great, but with such a change, an effort should be made to eat iodine rich foods occasionally. Seaweeds are a great option.
However, as I already mentioned, the Paleo template simply gives us a starting point from which to decide how to feed ourselves in the modern world. I make my own choices by weighing the health consequences of the foods I eat—and I also consider the gustatory pleasure of the experiences, too. Over the past few years, my attitude toward food has evolved. When I first adopted a Paleo lifestyle, I strictly followed the rigid dictates of the Paleo diet because this new way of eating made me feel so much better. I didn’t even think to question why it worked. But with time, I’ve learned that it’s more important to stay curious about the science behind the approach, and to be fully conscious of my food choices. I learned that I don’t need to strive for “Paleo perfection” as long as I’m mindful of what I’m choosing to put into my mouth, and why.
We strongly advise that you seek the professional advice of a health practitioner before you make any changes to your current diet and lifestyle and we do not suggest that you discontinue taking any medication you might have been advised to take. There are many long-standing myths and misconceptions surrounding cholesterol that we cover over the course of this program. That said, there are numerous peer reviewed papers showing a beneficial impact on all health-related markers, including cardiovascular and lipid profiles through the adoption of a dietary similar to what we advocate in The Paleo Way program.
Physicians, biochemists, nutritionists, and other researchers are starting to come around to the benefits of ancestral nutrition, and people who adopt a Paleo-like approach to eating are reporting significant improvements in their general health, body composition, and energy levels. Most importantly, there’s evidence that folks who eat this way are reducing their risks of numerous diseases and disorders that are associated with the Standard American Diet (S.A.D.).

These snack bars will definitely cure you of any food cravings, which makes them great as an emergency backup while you’re on the Paleo plan. Paleo is definitely not about starving yourself, or torturing yourself by depriving yourself of enjoyable foods, and these bars are proof of that. Imagine having a supply of these at the ready for times when you’re hungry but your next meal won’t be for a few hours. You’d be able to quell any signs of hunger which can often lead to diet-ruining food choices. However, as long as you’re eating balanced Paleo meals in the proper portions you shouldn’t be getting hungry until several hours after you’ve eaten.
As of 2016 there are limited data on the metabolic effects on humans eating a Paleo diet, but the data are based on clinical trials that have been too small to have a statistical significance sufficient to allow the drawing of generalizations.[3][6][20][not in citation given] These preliminary trials have found that participants eating a paleo nutrition pattern had better measures of cardiovascular and metabolic health than people eating a standard diet,[3][9] though the evidence is not strong enough to recommend the Paleo diet for treatment of metabolic syndrome.[9] As of 2014 there was no evidence the paleo diet is effective in treating inflammatory bowel disease.[21]
On his website, Sisson writes that "while the world has changed in innumerable ways in the last 10,000 years (for better and worse), the human genome has changed very little and thus only thrives under similar conditions." This is simply not true. In fact, this reasoning misconstrues how evolution works. If humans and other organisms could only thrive in circumstances similar to the ones their predecessors lived in, life would not have lasted very long.

Avocados make a great snack all by themselves, but they can be a little bland sometimes, and this is a great way to doll them up so they’re even tastier. This uses Greek yogurt, which is a fermented form of dairy and considered acceptable by some following the Paleo plan. Others see it as dairy is dairy and don’t eat it, so it’s up to you to decide if you want to incorporate a bit of fermented dairy like Greek yogurt into your diet or not. The rest of the recipe is just a bit of seasoning to help the avocado out in the flavor department.

While this sounds good in theory, scientists have a problem with its accuracy. “Anthropologists familiar with our Paleolithic ancestors’ behavior agree that these early humans did not follow any one style of eating. Basically, they ate whatever and whenever they could," said Neal Malik, an assistant professor at the School of Natural Health Arts and Sciences of Bastyr University. "They didn’t purposely follow a ‘clean’ diet — they just ate whatever was available to ensure survival. In fact, some scientists have gone so far as to say that early humans had a diet similar to pigs."
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Transitioning to The Paleo Way means changing at your own pace. It means taking each day as it comes, step by step, each one in the direction of a healthy new lifestyle and, ultimately, a healthy new you. It’s not easy, but it’s not hard either. With simple preparation, organization and forward thinking, you can be on your way to living this amazing life today. A life that is sustainable, long term, helping you live with optimum health and vitality.
Of course, snacking is completely optional on a Paleo diet. In fact, many people end up naturally eating only two meals per day, but it doesn’t mean that snacking is a bad idea, especially if the snack only contains healthy ingredients and prevents you from indulging with bad foods. They can also be great when on the go or as something to eat post workout. Just remember that your snacks should respect the basic principles of Paleo. This means that most fruits and nuts should be consumed only in moderation. Most fruits are high in the sugar fructose, which is toxic in higher doses and most nuts are high in polyunsaturated fat (PUFA), especially the omega-6 PUFA. Refer to my article on nuts and seeds to know about the best choices. This also means that snacks containing mainly saturated fat or animal protein are usually great.
This website is full of articles, easily accessed through the menus or the search function, that address most aspects of the Paleo diet and lifestyle. If you enjoy the science, you’ll love my newest book, Paleo Principles which includes 200+ recipes, and twenty meal plans with shopping lists!  Also, learn more about the Paleo Lifestyle here and about the Autoimmune Protocol here. And, get complete Paleo diet food lists here.
These apple chips will do a good job of satisfying your need for something crunchy, as well as something sweet. They’re baked, not fried, so right off the bat you’re coming out ahead than if you were to eat an ordinary chip. These are apples and not potatoes so you’re avoiding eating potatoes, one of the foods not allowed on Paleo. The ingredients list contains just two items, apples and cinnamon, so this recipe is as pure as it gets, especially if you’re using organic apples, like you’re supposed to.
Pumpkin seeds are one of the healthiest seeds you can eat, and making them taste as good as they can means you’ll be more inclined to eat them, and therefore more likely to benefit from the nutrients they contain. This recipe uses real jalapenos to deliver the heat, and keeps things elegant by only using the requisite number of ingredients to get these to taste right. For example, there’s olive oil, which is used to help roast the seeds, but it also helps the paprika and salt stick to the seeds so you get flavor on each one.
Ideally one should eat a wide variety of proteins from as many animal sources as possible. One need not and should not avoid fatty cuts of meat, particularly if consuming pastured sources. An often overlooked piece of the paleo diet in popular culture is an over-reliance on standard cuts of meat, at the expense of organ meats, bone broth and other collagen sources. For more information on the historical and practical aspects of consuming a more balanced protein intake, check out the Weston A. Price Foundation. If weight-loss is a goal, protein makes you feel satisfied between meals.
Protein is a staple of the caveman diet- specifically options that are grass-fed, wild caught or organic, as these options are often from animals raised in environments that encourage natural behavior. And because our ancestors didn't just live off chicken and beef, they hunted a wide variety of meat, the more variety you can add to your proteins, the better!
We have been lied to all our lives and told to eat plenty of whole grains and low fat. Grains have been genetically modified for so long and its effects on the human body have never been tested. Following the Paleo Diet principles have changed my life and helped me lose 37 pounds effortlessly. My health has vastly improved and I no longer have uncontrollable junk food cravings. I didn't know the cravings could be stopped, I just assumed I had no will power. My Doctor recommended this diet and I can't thank him enough! If you follow this way of living you will never regret it so buy this book and improve you health now!

Pork rinds aren’t for everyone, but if you’re looking for a salty potato chip alternative, they might be just the ticket. But what exactly are pork rinds? Well, essentially pork rind is the skin of a pig, that when fried, boiled, and/or baked creates a crispy, airy chip-like consistency. Like potato chips, pork rinds also come in a bunch of different flavors, such as BBQ, salt and pepper, and cheese. Make sure to check the ingredients of store bought pork rinds, as only a handful are truly Paleo snacks.
Drop Grok into the Hiwi's midst—or indeed among any modern or ancient hunter–gather society—and he would be a complete aberration. Grok cannot teach us how to live or eat; he never existed. Living off the land or restricting oneself to foods available before agriculture and industry does not guarantee good health. The human body is not simply a collection of adaptations to life in the Paleolithic—its legacy is far greater. Each of us is a dynamic assemblage of inherited traits that have been tweaked, transformed, lost and regained since the beginning of life itself. Such changes have not ceased in the past 10,000 years.
The Raw Paleo Diet & Lifestyle site is a resource created by members of the Raw Paleolithic Diet community for people looking to improve their health by choosing a more historically natural approach to diet, fitness and lifestyle. They have two forums: Raw Paleo Forum. It has some activity. And Raw Paleo Diet, or RVAF Raw Veg and Animal Foods Group, a forum for followers of semi-RPD diets, (such as Aajonus Vonderplanitz's Primal Diet/Weston-Price Diet/Sally Fallon/Instincto) and followers of the NeanderThin/Paleo/Stefansson Diets, who, for health reasons, wish to pursue a more fully Raw, Paleolithic variation of those diets.
Saturated fat has been demonized by our health authorities and media. What is the basis for this position on Saturated fat? Are current recommendations for VERY low saturated fat intake justified? How much saturated fat (and what types), if any should one eat? Without a historical and scientific perspective these questions can be nearly impossible to answer.

Paleo Pals: Jimmy and the Carrot Rocket Ship by Sarah Fragoso. Piper, Phoenix and Parker are not ordinary children–they are super heroes that travel the land helping other children learn about living the healthiest, most exciting, most super lives possible. They are known as The Paleo Pals, and this is a story about how they help out Jimmy, a little boy who is not sure if eating paleo food is even one tiny bit exciting or super. Published February 7, 2012.
One other thing to note here is that I pre-make some of these ingredients, which takes time, but at least it’s not taking time in the middle of the day when I’m trying to work or rush out the door. Also, I don’t mind eating food cold. I know a lot of people can’t stomach the idea of eating cold meat, although that really confuses me because Subway makes billions of dollars every year selling cold meat. Anyway, you can always heat these things up at work or home. And without further ado…
Closely examining one group of modern hunter–gatherers—the Hiwi—reveals how much variation exists within the diet of a single small foraging society and deflates the notion that hunter–gatherers have impeccable health. Such examination also makes obvious the immense gap between a genuine community of foragers and Paleo dieters living in modern cities, selectively shopping at farmers' markets and making sure the dressing on their house salad is gluten, sugar and dairy free.
These little sandwiches are really pushing the limits of a conventional sandwich. Bacon is serving as the “bread” and guacamole is the thing getting sandwiched. Avocados are bona fide superfood, and contain plenty of potassium, fiber, and healthy fat. Bacon is often the scourge of most diet plans, but on Paleo it is allowed so why not dig in? The two go really well together, and you’ll often find them as add-ons to deli sandwiches because they simply taste that good.
The Paleo diet provides the foundation for a healthy digestive system.  It supports healthy growth of a diversity of probiotic bacteria in the gut through its focus on prebiotic and probiotic foods and through its avoidance of foods that contribute to gut dysbiosis (where the bacteria in your gut are the wrong kinds, wrong diversity, wrong numbers, and/or in the wrong part of the gastrointestinal tract).  It supports the health of the tissues that form the gut barrier by supplying essential nutrients required for gut barrier integrity and by avoiding foods that are inherently difficult to digest, are known to irritate or damage the tissues that form the gut barrier, or that are known to stimulate the immune system.
Similarly to the above, we do not have designated Pescetarian options, however, in virtually all instances you would most definitely be able to swap the proteins out for your favourites from the sea. Bare in mind seafood typically cooks much faster than red meat or poultry, so it would require some extra consideration and perhaps cooking your seafood on lower heats and/or for shorter period of time (perhaps towards the end of cooking). There are already many seafood recipes within the program, and paired with your creativity (trust yourself!) you could absolutely pick up some amazing new recipes as well as benefit from the Program.
Food and Western Disease: Health and nutrition from an evolutionary perspective by Staffan Lindeberg (MD at Lund University in Sweden) is the newest book promoting the paleo diet. It covers the link between diet and disease in the Western world (all major diseases, including cancer, heart disease, obesity, stroke and dementia) and towards a greater knowledge of what can be defined as the optimal human diet. Benefits and risks are detailed. The Amazon reviews are all 5 stars. Especially read Susan Schenck's detailed review. You can read a preview at Google Books
Even if eating only foods available to hunter–gatherers in the Paleolithic made sense, it would be impossible. As Christina Warinner of the University of Zurich emphasizes in her 2012 TED talk, just about every single species commonly consumed today—whether a fruit, vegetable or animal—is drastically different from its Paleolithic predecessor. In most cases, we have transformed the species we eat through artificial selection: we have bred cows, chickens and goats to provide as much meat, milk and eggs as possible and have sown seeds only from plants with the most desirable traits—with the biggest fruits, plumpest kernels, sweetest flesh and fewest natural toxins. Cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts and kale are all different cultivars of a single species, Brassica oleracea; generation by generation, we reshaped this one plant's leaves, stems and flowers into wildly different arrangements, the same way we bred Welsh corgis, pugs, dachshunds, Saint Bernards and greyhounds out of a single wolf species. Corn was once a straggly grass known as teosinte and tomatoes were once much smaller berries. And the wild ancestors of bananas were rife with seeds.
We strongly advise that you get in touch with your healthcare professional if you are pregnant or lactating to tell them exactly what you are doing before making any changes to your diet or exercise regime. Although we believe many of the dietary changes advocated through this Program could be quite beneficial, every circumstance and pregnancy is different and close, careful monitoring is advised.
Wheat Belly: Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight, and Find Your Path Back to Health by William Davis, MD. A renowned cardiologist explains how eliminating wheat from our diets can prevent fat storage, shrink unsightly "wheat belly" bulges, and reverse myriad health problems, like minor rashes and high blood sugar. The author contends that every single human will experience health improvement by giving up modern wheat. The book provides readers with a user-friendly, step-by-step plan to navigate a new, wheat-free lifestyle. Informed by cutting-edge science and nutrition, along with case studies from men and women who have experienced life-changing transformations in their health after waving goodbye to wheat. The author's blog. Published August 30, 2011.

The Paleo Solution: The Original Human Diet by Robb Wolf, a research biochemist. Readers will understand digestion, how protein, carbohydrate and fat influence hormones, and how this plays into fat loss, health or disease. They'll understand the significance of dietary fats whether the concern is performance, health, longevity, or making your fanny look good in a bikini. The book goes into how lifestyle factors such as sleep and stress influence the hormone cortisol. It gets into basic blood work and what things people should ask their doctor to include to better assess inflammation and health. It also includes a detailed 30-day meal plan and a beginner exercise program. The exercise program is geared to the beginner or someone who is quite de-conditioned but the nutritional info would be helpful for anyone regardless of background. The author's website is Robb Wolf. He likes to pass out the information via weekly podcasts. Here's a video Introduction to the book. And here is an excerpt from the book: How to Keep Feces Out of Your Bloodstream (or Lose 10 Pounds in 14 Days). The many Amazon reviews all rave about the book. Published September 14, 2010.


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In the long term, you have to be sure you’re getting calcium and other nutrients you’re missing by not having dairy products and certain grains. Some paleo-approved foods, such as salmon and spinach, contain calcium, so you have to be sure you’re including them in your diet. It would be a good idea to check with a registered dietitian, too, to make sure you’re meeting your calcium and other nutrient needs.

NeanderThin: Eat Like a Caveman to Achieve a Lean, Strong, Healthy Body (Hardcover) by Ray Audette, with Troy Gilchrist, was one of the early paleo diet authors. His home page NeanderThin [now restored from archive.org] has a diet based on the ideas of paleolithic nutrition. The diet can be followed as a low-carb, moderate or high carb diet, depending upon whether and how much fruit is used. You can read up through page 19 of the book at Google Books. The original press release from 1999. [The webmaster has an extra copy with the author's signature for sale. It has the original lime-purple cover. Pristine new condition. $60 (shipping included). Paypal only. Use e-mail link at page bottom.]
The Carnitine Miracle by Robert Crayhon, M.S. The nutrient carnitine is abundant in red meat. According to Crayhon carnitine helps balance blood lipids and blood sugar levels, maximizes energy levels, increases endurance, eliminates discomfort in ketosis, promotes burning of fat and building of muscle and increases overall well-being. See reviews at Amazon.
Knowing what to eat is part of it, but following this fairly restrictive lifestyle in a modern environment surrounded by cookies and candy and bagels and pasta is really difficult! Factor in the “carb flu” you might go through in the first few weeks (as your body gets weaned off of carbohydrate fuel and habits), and most people give up on the Paleo diet long before it creates lasting change!
For many people, switching over to Paleo isn’t easy. Due to the sudden drop-off in dietary carbohydrates, folks who are used to mainlining pasta and sugar often report that they feel terrible for the first couple of weeks after going Paleo. (Some call this the “Paleo flu.”) But if you can make it through this initial period of sluggishness (which can last two or three weeks), you’ll come through the other end feeling like a million bucks. Trust me. I’ve been there.
The NY Times had a blog article on Good News on Saturated Fat which is reporting on Gary Taubes's interpretation of the new report in The New England Journal of Medicine on a two-year diet experiment in Israel. A followup is the post The Fat Fight Goes On where Gary rebuts the arguments against the study. And here's a good interview with Taubes (and includes a good summary): Gary Taubes on Cold Fusion, Good Nutrition and What Makes Bad (and Good) Science.
These apple chips will do a good job of satisfying your need for something crunchy, as well as something sweet. They’re baked, not fried, so right off the bat you’re coming out ahead than if you were to eat an ordinary chip. These are apples and not potatoes so you’re avoiding eating potatoes, one of the foods not allowed on Paleo. The ingredients list contains just two items, apples and cinnamon, so this recipe is as pure as it gets, especially if you’re using organic apples, like you’re supposed to.
If you were to eat an unlimited amount of red meat (which the paleo diet technically allows), you may see your heart health suffer. While experts applaud the omission of packaged and processed foods like cake, cookies, chips, and candy — which are well known to be bad for your ticker — they’re not crazy about the fact that paleo doesn’t allow you to eat whole grains, legumes, and most dairy. Whole grains in particular have been linked with better cholesterol levels, as well as a reduced risk of stroke, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. (13) These are all comorbidities of heart disease. (14)
They say that low-fat weight-loss diets have proved in clinical trials and real life to be dismal failures, and that on top of it all, the percentage of fat in the American diet has been decreasing for two decades. Our cholesterol levels have been declining, and we have been smoking less, and yet the incidence of heart disease has not declined as would be expected. ”That is very disconcerting,” Willett says. ”It suggests that something else bad is happening.”

Anything that comes in a box, jar, or bag should be avoided on the paleo diet—as should anything that just wasn't consumed back then. That means no grains, dairy, added salt, or legumes (including peanuts, beans, lentils, and soybeans), according to Robb Wolf, a former research biochemist, paleo expert, and author of The Paleo Solution. While potatoes are generally outlawed on the diet, Wolff says they are okay to eat sparingly as long as you earn them through exercise (more on that next). Alcohol and honey are also generally considered paleo no-nos, but red wine tends to be the closest option there is to a paleo drink, and honey is far preferred to table sugar or artificial sweeteners.

If you just crave sweets in general (not an easy craving to fight off), you could be low in a number of nutrients, namely, sulfur. Cruciferous vegetables like broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, kohlrabi, bok choy, kale, rutabaga, collard greens, turnip (root or greens), maca, radish, and wasabi, among others, are great sources of sulfur, Vitamin C and fiber. They’re also great for fighting off cancer cells.
If you crave soda, you might be low in calcium. The best source of calcium is in your leafy greens. Make yourself a big salad out of spinach, kale, watercress, turnip greens, some broccoli, and sesame seeds. If you do dairy, throw some cheddar in there, too. Top it all off with some homemade Ranch dressing or a nice oil and vinegar dressing. This snack will not only help increase your calcium intake, it’ll also fill you up and leave no room for that soda you want to drink.
The aspects of the Paleo diet that advise eating fewer processed foods and less sugar and salt are consistent with mainstream advice about diet.[1] Diets with a paleo nutrition pattern have some similarities to traditional ethnic diets such as the Mediterranean diet that have been found to be healthier than the Western diet.[3][6] Following the Paleo diet, however, can lead to nutritional deficiencies such as those of vitamin D and calcium, which in turn could lead to compromised bone health;[1][20] it can also lead to an increased risk of ingesting toxins from high fish consumption.[3]

Protein is a staple of the caveman diet- specifically options that are grass-fed, wild caught or organic, as these options are often from animals raised in environments that encourage natural behavior. And because our ancestors didn't just live off chicken and beef, they hunted a wide variety of meat, the more variety you can add to your proteins, the better!
Autoimmune diseases (such as Ankylosing Spondylitis, Lupus and others) are multifactorial in their causes, however some research now suggests a Paleo based diet may help autoimmune conditions and improve the underlying imbalance of gut micro-flora. The gut micro-flora generally has significant effects on gut and immune function. Despite the possible benefits of a Paleo based diet, we strongly recommend you seek the support of a suitable health professional both before making any changes to your diet or physical routine and as well as during the Program, so that progress can be monitored and guidance provided for any adjustments made to suit your individual sate. Monitoring by a medical professional of the dosages of any medications you are on is also recommended.
Go heavy on the veggies. For example, at lunch and dinner, make them three quarters of your plate, with one quarter occupied by meat—instead of the other way around. If you’re okay with just Paleo-ish, you could even replace a few meat dishes each week with a plant-based meal that incorporates legumes or Greek yogurt (cue the fainting of Paleo purists).
Don’t feel bad that you can’t have Doritos now that you’re on Paleo, you just have to come up with snacks that aren’t bad for you. These chips use a mixture of coconut flour and almond flour, and have flax seed baked right in so you’re getting a fair bit of nutrition along with your snack. These make great dipping instruments for salsa, guacamole, or any Mexican-inspired dip. They won’t be short on flavor with all of the butter and spices they’re using, so you won’t feel like you’re missing out or stuck eating “health food”. Who knows, you might even end up preferring these.
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