Advocates of the diet argue that the increase in diseases of affluence after the dawn of agriculture was caused by changes in diet, but others have countered that it may be that pre-agricultural hunter-gatherers did not suffer from the diseases of affluence because they did not live long enough to develop them.[30] Based on the data from hunter-gatherer populations still in existence, it is estimated that at age 15, life expectancy was an additional 39 years, for a total age of 54.[31] At age 45, it is estimated that average life expectancy was an additional 19 years, for a total age of 64 years.[32][33] That is to say, in such societies, most deaths occurred in childhood or young adulthood; thus, the population of elderly – and the prevalence of diseases of affluence – was much reduced. Excessive food energy intake relative to energy expended, rather than the consumption of specific foods, is more likely to underlie the diseases of affluence. "The health concerns of the industrial world, where calorie-packed foods are readily available, stem not from deviations from a specific diet but from an imbalance between the energy humans consume and the energy humans spend."[34]
The Paleo concept is new for most people and this newness can spark many questions. We like people to not only read about and educate themselves on this topic but also to “get in and do it.” Experience is perhaps the best teacher and often cuts through any confusion surrounding this way of eating. Now, all that considered, there are still some common counter arguments to the Paleo diet that happen with sufficient frequency that a whole paper was written on it. Enjoy: Evolutionary Health Promotion. A consideration of common counter-arguments.
I used the right sized pan after reading further into the blog it was the almond flour I used it was almond meal/flour. I went to one of your preferred sites and ordered flour from there. I am new to this type of baking so I am learning as I go. Do you have the nutritional breakdown of this bread printed somewhere? I am not seeing it on the recipe.
Delicious! I had to use white rice flour as I didn’t have coconut and it wasn’t available at the store across the street. It smelled a bit odd, but tastes great! Anyone have any ideas as to why all my breads come out the height of biscotti (ok, maybe a little taller, but not much)? I use a Pyrex glass loaf pan. I try to avoid using Aluminum cookware and I’m tempted to try the cast iron pan that several people raved about, but I am definitely looking for a sandwich bread shape. I would love some feedback on that.

In order to simulate a bread-like texture without using gluten, grain free and gluten free bread recipes often use a variety of different flours and binders. We’ve tried so many keto bread recipes that taste way too eggy or too much like almonds or coconut. The trick is to find a combination of ingredients that yields good flavor, as well as bready texture and a loaf that rises nicely.


In fact, the health benefits of the paleo diet are unproven. "Our ancestors ate this way and didn't have many of the chronic diseases we do, but that doesn't mean the food they ate is the reason why; drawing that conclusion would be like saying we live three times longer than our Paleolithic ancestors because we eat fast food," says Christopher Ochner, MD, research associate at the New York Obesity Nutrition Research Center at St. Luke's and Roosevelt Hospitals. Still, a handful of small studies have tried to determine if a paleo diet is a healthier diet. One small study published in the journal Diabetologia found that the diet improved blood sugar over 12 weeks compared to a Mediterranean one that allowed grains, low-fat dairy, and oils, but it's hard to say whether researchers would come to the same results in a larger study.
Hi Connie, I don’t recommend using whole eggs in this recipe. The two recipes are very different. The egg whites in this recipe are beaten to stiff peaks to create the fluffiness. You could fold the yolks in later, but you’d need to modify the other ingredients, and besides, the bread would turn out very egg-y. The other recipe has fewer eggs than this one, and they are added differently. 

Hi, I’ve made this recipe twice and LOVE the taste. However, both times the bread would rise so high in the oven, but as soon as I take it out to cool it deflated and middle sink down. What could’ve gone wrong? Over mixing? I did switch coconut flour to all almond flour instead. Could that be a problem? Please help as I’m anxious to make another batch. Thank you.
Made this yesterday and it looked/tasted beautiful! Did not do anything special (whipping the white, creaming the butter, etc) .. just folded gently and it was just a beautiful golden color. I topped it with sesame seeds because the flax seeds had already been put away. I put the dough into two mini-loaf pans and they fit perfectly. Perfect way to get my bread cravings with gest. diabetes and got two thumbs up from my diabetic dad, too, who eventually stole my other loaf! Will be making again and again. Thank you!
That is EXACTLY what I just started reading through the comments to find out! I’m not that successful a baker anyway, and we’ve lived in CO for the last three years and the altitude has killed all but the easiest recipes for me. And now I’ve been diagnosed with a condition requiring gluten-, dairy-, sugar-, and soy-free. I’m looking forward to trying this recipe!
Thank you Lexi for this awesome, super quick recipe!!! I have been trying out so many different kinds of quick breads with clean ingredients and somehow they take longer. This is will our go to bread, so thank you!! I have tried them twice and both times were awesome! Second time I tried a little variation with adding some rolled oat flour and it did not change it in any noticeable manner. Apparently too much of almonds have disadvantages on the body. I will continue experimenting with adding a little bit of other flours but big THANK YOU for this easy tasty simple recipe.
The line of VivoBarefoot shoes have a design based on the simple principle that being barefoot is the healthiest way for you and your feet to be. An ultra thin (3mm) puncture resistant sole allows your feet to be as millions of years of evolutionary design intended Barefoot! There are many styles with each in many colors. Plus many more styles that are not available through Amazon.com. Many of them are conventionally styled and can be worn to work. For the current models see Amazon.com. One style is discussed below.
Exercise is a vital part of the live-by-your-genetic-code equation. Surviving in the Stone Age meant a constant on-the-go lifestyle that probably required 4,000-plus calories a day, according to David L. Katz, MD, director of the Yale University Prevention Research Center. Even most people who hit the gym regularly won't need to eat that many calories, but the principle of using food as fuel to exercise still stands.
Chances are, if you're following the paleo diet, you're reallllly missing bread. We don't blame you! Bread is a huge part of our routines, from avocado toast at breakfast to tomato soup and grilled cheese for dinner. There's just too many good things to eat on bread! This recipe will help curb your carb-y cravings, and is sturdy enough to recreate all your favorite sandwiches and toasts. Curious? Continue reading for answers to our most frequently asked questions.
Nutrition & Physical Degeneration by Dr. Weston Price's book puts to rest a lot of myths about diet, dental, physical, and emotional health, and presents the strongest case for a super-nutritious Native (or Paleo) Diet. His book outlines the conditions/causes for exceptional health. A classic that was first published in 1938. The Soil and Health Library has a Book Review by Steve Solomon. If you don't buy the book at least read the review. N.B. If you live in one of the countries where this book is now in the public domain, you can read it online. But not if you live in a country where it is still under copyright protection.
Bread was phenomenal!! I followed the recipe exactly, I had a bread pan that was about an inch wider than yours but bread still rose. Looks great, looks just like a loaf of banana bread! The bread is very buttery in flavor, I can’t have more than one slice it’s pretty rich. It’s a dense bread like banana bread. I was SO excited when I pulled it out of the oven and it looked and tasted good I did a little “I made BREAD!” dance. Alas, bread, I have missed you…
Wowwwww!!! This is amazing. I had to change the recipe a bit (I followed the top recipe) because of lack of ingredients. I used Raw Almond Flour (not blanched); I used only three eggs + one chia egg + one flax egg; and my pan was about 8.5*4, so a bit bigger than recommended; I did not use the food processor, just mixed everything with a whisk and a spoon. Even though the pan was larger the height was great, and I’ve never had such a moist bread. Incredible! It is so delicious and wonderful. And so easy to make!! Thank you so much- I haven’t eaten anything like this since quitting gluten. This will be my go-to bread from now on.
I’m new to the paleo lifestyle, if I’m honest I’m new to healthy non fast food lifestyle as well. I have recently undergone gastric sleeve surgery and had thought I would never be able to eat a sandwich ever again. Then I found the Paleo food movement and in particular your site. I have tried a lot of your recipes and this bread is my favorite. I love how moist it is and that it remains fresh for a full week. It also freezes well too. Thank you so much for re-introducing me to the sandwich.
Yes, if you bake this as muffins you will need to adjust the cooking time. If it’s a regular oven, start checking it around 15 min, if you have a convection oven, start checking them around 12 min. Also the size of your muffin tins will affect the outcome so if yours are smaller, just keep an eye on them and when they smell good and look done, start testing them with a toothpick. If it comes out clean, they are done.
Hi Maya, I’m new to your website and I’m anxious to try out this bread recipe. I’m helping my 27 year old son lose some weight. He’s on some pretty potent medication that has caused him to crave carbs thus putting on quite a bit of weight over the past few years. Since I’m his caregiver and also a Certified Nutritionist, I’m looking for some healthy alternatives to make his transition a bit easier and he loves bread.
OMG…Could your FABULOUS coconut palm syrup/recipe be used/considered as the ultra-expensive COCONUT NECTAR?..If so…this is sheer BRILLIANCE as it has provided a needed “Eureka” moment for me in my quest for a low glycemic substitute for agave or honey..Is the resulting syrup suitable for use in this fashion in baking?…Thank you so much for contributing your wonderful idea. 

Drop Grok into the Hiwi's midst—or indeed among any modern or ancient hunter–gather society—and he would be a complete aberration. Grok cannot teach us how to live or eat; he never existed. Living off the land or restricting oneself to foods available before agriculture and industry does not guarantee good health. The human body is not simply a collection of adaptations to life in the Paleolithic—its legacy is far greater. Each of us is a dynamic assemblage of inherited traits that have been tweaked, transformed, lost and regained since the beginning of life itself. Such changes have not ceased in the past 10,000 years.
Since doing low carb the one thing I’ve really missed is bread. I used to eat it with almost every meal. My wife has been very negative about paleo bread recipes saying that it would be dry and crumbly. Well, I made some bean soup with ham and finally made your microwave bread. IT WAS FANTASTIC!!!!! I gave my wife a bite and she was amazed. It was moist, soft and delicious. Especially good knowing that it’s good for me, with no gluten or any other killers. Thank you so much for this recipe.
This recipe is FANTASTIC! I think was my first attempt a time grain free bread and I hit the jackpot! No need to look farther. I followed another reader’s suggestion to beat egg whites separately then fold in at the end. I used Bob Mill’s super fine almond flour. Everything else I followed exactly as primed and cooked an extra 8 minutes for a total of 33 mins. THANK YOU SO MUCH for such an excellent recipe!
The Lazy Paleo Enthusiast's Cookbook: A Collection of Practical Recipes and Advice on How to Eat Healthy, Tasty Food While Spending as Little Time in the Kitchen as Possible by Sean Robertson. The author is a recovering vegan and in the first half of the book recounts his dietary experiences using some paleo foods to restore his health. You learn that the author's main strategy is to make food in large batches which can be reheated to provide dinners for several days running. The second half of the book contains 28 recipes. Some borderline or nonpaleo ingredients do appear, but most of the recipes are more paleo than not. Published November 15, 2011.
YUM! I am going into week 3 of Paleo and missed bread. This is yummy although I need I smaller pan because it’s short. Not that that matters, I eat it alone or with grass-fed butter anyway! 🙂 I did have flax seeds, just the ground flax. And I used coconut oil (not butter) and coconut cream. It came out great! I cooked it for 35 minutes because even though the toothpick came out clean, it still didn’t “look” done. 35 minutes was perfect! Thanks for the recipe!
As I type I have my first loaf of Paleo Bread in the oven. I live in South Africa where we apparently don’t have any flax meal…so I imported some from your side of the world and can’t wait to taste the results. My daughter, who suffers with severe juvenile arthritis and for whom we all made the conversion to Paleo, and I made it together and experimented with your silver dollar pancakes for fun at the same time. Those were delicious and enjoyed with blueberries and a bit of honey.
A few days ago I was delighted to learn that Dr. Oz was going to again feature The Paleo Diet on his nationally syndicated television show along with one of my co-authors, Nell Stephenson, of The Paleo Diet Cookbook. I tuned into the Dr. Oz show and was happy about most of what I saw except for Chris Kresser, expounding upon the health virtues of a food group, beans and legumes, that definitely are not Paleo. Please read the following...

Hi, Kaylie. It’s yummy! I just made the bread and ate 4(!) slices before slicing and freezing the rest. I followed the recipe exactly, using the same ingredients, measurements, temp. and baking time. I was surprised by the size of the finished loaf. It measured 3 7/8″ wide by 2″ high. I can’t imagine making a sandwich with slices that size! That said, it tastes great, and has a very good texture. At 35 minutes, I used a toothpick to see if it was baked through. The toothpick came out clean, but on slicing it, I think I’ll give it a few more minutes when I make it again. Thanks for the recipe.


Whenever I come across a recipe and I want to convert it to grams I use the amount on say my bag of almond flour and calculate it out. My almond flour weighs out to be 112 grams per cup so for this recipe you would use 224 grams of almond flour (I use superfine Kirkland brand from Costco and I’ve also used Bob’s Red Mill superfine and they both work equally well). The 2 tablespoons of coconut flour is a small amount so I wouldn’t bother weighing that out. As for the flax seed, I buy mine whole and measure accordingly and grind in my coffee grinder.
This is really good. I only use 3 eggs,. I didn’t have any arrowroot powder, so I used cornstarch instead. I used lemon juice instead of ACV because ACV gives me migraines and I used coconut cream (don’t like yogurt). It tasted a bit like sweet bread, but it made an excellent sandwich. It didn’t rise like the picture. I’m sure it because of the substitutions I made. I always make sandwiches cutting the bread in half anyway so it didn’t matter that it didn’t rise as high as the picture shows. This will be my go to bread for now on. Oh yeah. I baked it for 45 minutes instead of 25. Ovens temperatures and climates varies for baking. I always baked paleo breads on 350 degrees for 45 minutes. It comes out perfect every time. Thank you so much for posted this recipe.
re almond flour & coconut oil, any health food store staff would be super helpful in pointing you to the right ones, especially when you tell them you’ll baking. he showed me unbleached almond flour and coconut flour (Bob’s Red Mill is all over NYC, at least, and you can get it online http://www.amazon.com/Bobs-Red-Mill-Organic-16-Ounce/dp/B000KENKZ8/ref=sr_1_4?s=grocery&ie=UTF8&qid=1383057846&sr=1-4&keywords=bob%27s+red+mill+coconut their products are consistently great, IMHO)

For most people the fact the Paleo diet delivers the best results is all they need. Improved blood lipids, weight loss, and reduced pain from autoimmunity is proof enough.  Many people however are not satisfied with blindly following any recommendations, be they nutrition or exercise related. Some folks like to know WHY they are doing something. Fortunately, the Paleo diet has stood not only the test of time, but also the rigors of scientific scrutiny.

Hi Ashley, Usually egg whites take just a few minutes to beat to stiff peaks. Definitely not 40 minutes. Old eggs can sometimes be the culprit, or a bit of leftover fat/grease from something else in the bowl can prevent stiff peaks (this is especially common when using a plastic bowl). Lastly, it could be that your mixer isn’t powerful enough to beat that many whites to stiff peaks, but this reason is a last resort and probably less likely. Cream of tartar is a huge help in reaching stiff peaks so you can try adding that next time.


I completely omitted the palm shortening and didn’t replace it with anything – I can’t tell that anything’s missing. I also doubled the recipe and put it all in one loaf pan like some others did and baked it for 30 minutes. Even the hubs, who is truly a bread addict, really likes this recipe! I think they’re kind of English Muffiny and I toast the slices for sandwiches. Gluten gives me eczema and I never thought I’d get a good sandwich bread again. Thank you! 🙂
I enjoyed the concept of this recipe and decided to give it a shot. My gut reaction by looking at the ingredients i though the salt would be too much. I was right. I have tried this recipe twice. Both times it came out entirely too salty. I even halved the salt the second time. This recipe was a total flop for me. I followed the recipe exactly with the slight adjustment to the salt the second time. I think it needs a pinch of salt and maybe less baking powder. Perhaps adding honey or maple syrup will curb the saltiness but that would defeat the purpose of having an unsweetened bread. More experimenting is on the horizon for me. Thanks for sharing.
I too think it’s funny how many people basically ask permission to do substitutions, as if the recipe police will come down on them or something, or like you eluded to that maybe you can predict the exact outcome of every possible substitution. Victim of your own success!! : ) You are pretty good Elana so we won’t be surprised if you develop baking clairvoyance. Thank you for this recipe, after going Paleo this year I’ve really wanted to find some baking recipes I could feel good about eating. Excited to try this!!!
Proponents of the Paleo diet follow a nutritional plan based on the eating habits of our ancestors in the Paleolithic period, between 2.5 million and 10,000 years ago. Before agriculture and industry, humans presumably lived as hunter–gatherers: picking berry after berry off of bushes; digging up tumescent tubers; chasing mammals to the point of exhaustion; scavenging meat, fat and organs from animals that larger predators had killed; and eventually learning to fish with lines and hooks and hunt with spears, nets, bows and arrows.
I use parchment paper to avoid the aluminum in the pan and that makes a nice liner to lift out the loaf (no cleaning!). I’ve made it with coconut oil, ghee, and regular butter… it’s always yummy! I’ve substituted coconut sugar for the honey and once even made it without a sweetener… it’s always fantastic! Occasionally I’ll substitute chia for the flax seed, too, but the basic recipe is the backbone for all my experimenting.

Best bread I’ve found so far! I just used almond meal instead of blanched almond flour as I haven’t gotten around to buying any yet but it is so yummy! Had some left over chicken from a roast last night and it was definitely one of the best chicken sandwiches I’ve had for a long time! Same as Kai though I think I’ll drop back the coconut oil next time by maybe a tbs or 2 🙂

This looks awesome! Just wanted to say thank you. I’m a bomber cook, but when it comes to baking, I’m so grateful people like you are willing to play around in the kitchen and make all the mistakes for me. :) Also, I made your chocolate cream pie from your cookbook for a party and I swear, no one ever knows your desserts are GF and Primal-friendly. It’s gotten to where I always bring dessert so I know I can enjoy something, but then everyone ends up eating it too!

The Sugar Addict's Total Recovery Program by Kathleen DesMaisons. While this isn't really a paleo book, it does point out issues with the foods we aren't eating. The books claims the excessive processed sugar consumed is responsible for "mood swings, depression, fatigue, fuzzy thinking, PMS, impulsivity ... [and] unpredictable temper." She says her research shows indulging in sugar highs should be treated much more seriously, akin to heroin or alcohol dependency, because sugar causes spikes in the neurotransmitters serotonin and beta-dopamine just like those drugs.
I came across your recipe. I am going to bake it tonight and give it a try. After being paleo for 3 years I have not missed breads or pastas. But my lovely boyfriend who grew up in an italian family loves bread and pasta. He likes making sandwiches for lunch. Knowing how terrible wheat is for the body I have been trying to find paleo bread alternatives. I cant fully change him to paleo but I have been trying to find a healthier option. I made another recipe for bread that is similar to a ciabatta bread texture. I put jam on it and I think it tastes awesome! My boyfriend tried it with his sandwhiches and didn’t like it 🙁 So I here I am on your site. I am going to give your recipe a try. I hope it has more of a bread like texture that he can enjoy. If this fails I guess I have to let him eat the regular store bought bread and become unhealthier…. ;( I hate to be that girlfriend that tries to change their man’s food habits but I hate to see how unhealthy he has become! I will update once I make the recipe tonight!
The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Living: An Expert Guide to Making the Life-Saving Benefits of Carbohydrate Restriction Sustainable and Enjoyable by Stephen D. Phinney and Jeff S. Volek synthesizes the science into one readable source. The book is excellent for general low-carb high-fat moderate protein diets. While they begin with the idea that we should eat like a caveman, they do not follow the conclusion to its logical end and have us avoid the classes of foods our ancestors would have found unrecognizable. They avoid the metobolic syndrome, but not the autoimmune diseases. They mention that monosaturates should be favored, though they are not emphasized in the menu example. The book's daily menu examples also all include dairy in one form or another. No tips are given tips for those who do not do dairy. Published May 19, 2011. The Amazon reviews average to 4+.
this is a great recipe! I am not full-on paleo, primal, or other, but like to experiment. This one is a keeper. I followed the recipe pretty much to the point, just adding in a tablespoon of hemp protein powder (pure hemp) with the flour mixture. It has wonderful flavor and I’m looking forward to having it with some almond butter tonight. Thanks for all your testing! You’ve made happy recipients out of many of us :)
hi – thanks for the recipe…we LOVE all your recipes in your books and blogs..and we are a Paleo and dairy free..Paleo my husband and son HAS to because of dairy intolerance. I would like to mention that those following a strict Paleo diet need to omit the Flax. Flax is not a paleo ingredient as it is a cultivated grain. I have omitted the flax in your recipes when called for and you never miss it. Thanks again for all of your hardwork and recipes!!!
I am studying nutrition and, like you, understand that many foods labeled as paleo weren’t actually consumed by our paleolithic ancestors thousands of years ago. I guarantee elana knows that as well. Labeling a recipe paleo is an easy way to categorize posts so those eating a paleo, or grain and dairy free whole foods diet, know it’s for them. Hope that clears up some of your frustration and or misunderstanding about paleo recipes. enjoy!
Thank you so much for this! I have always LOVED bread and made my own before going Paleo earlier this year. Now my husband asked me to bake him Zucchini Blueberry Bread, my absolute favorite, more of a cake than bread. I knew it would be irresistible for me. The day I made his bread, I found your post (again). You said we could add fruit, so I added shredded zucchini and blueberries. AWSOME! Although it appeared to be done after 90 secs., there was a raw section inside. I put it all on a plate and microwaved a bit longer. What a great make over for an old-time favorite. Thanks again.
I measured out all ingredients and microwaved on high for 90 sec. But I am pretty sure the problem was my microwave.. I own one of those flat-bed, inverter microwaves. It usually takes me 1:30 instead of 1:00 to heat up a cup of milk. So I guess I should have let the bread cook for longer. Does anyone have any experience with this sort of microwave?
Hi Nancy, this recipe does not make enough batter to properly fill a full sized loaf pan. So, if you use the recommended size baking pan, the bread will be the proper height. If you use a pan that is bigger than the one I used, your bread will rise, but it won’t fill the pan to the right height. Here’s an example that might help –if you place 1/2 cup of water in a 1/2 measuring cup it will be 100% full to the top of the cup. If you put the same 1/2 cup of water in a 1 cup measuring cup it will only fill it 50% and will only be 1/2 full in height. That’s why a loaf pan that is too large doesn’t work for this recipe when it comes to the height of the loaf :-)
Thanks for the recipe! I actually made it this morning, but instead of making it as a loaf bread, I cooked the batter up pancake style. Mostly because I wanted “bread” quickly! I really wanted a BLT for breakfast so using your batter as a pancake, made it cook quickly. Then I quickly whipped up some homemade mayo and fried some bacon. What a tasty breakfast! Thanks again!!
Hi Tessa, it’s hard to say what went wrong if you said you used all of the exact same ingredients as I do, and you follow the directions. The only thing I can think of is how you’re measuring your ingredients. Adding more yogurt or milk will not help and may make your bread very soggy. Let me know what happens when you try again. I will make a video showing the process soon.
Hi everyone, I made this bread and it smelled AMAZING baking, but as soon as I cut into it, I got The Smell. It’s a bit like ammonia, but even more, to me, it smells EXACTLY like Nickelodeon Gak (anyone else remember that from the 90s?). I can sortof taste it as well. It’s quite disappointing after using all the almond flour and eggs, but it’s just not edible to me.
OMG…Could your FABULOUS coconut palm syrup/recipe be used/considered as the ultra-expensive COCONUT NECTAR?..If so…this is sheer BRILLIANCE as it has provided a needed “Eureka” moment for me in my quest for a low glycemic substitute for agave or honey..Is the resulting syrup suitable for use in this fashion in baking?…Thank you so much for contributing your wonderful idea.
Thank you so much for this recipe! I’ve made it several times and I love it for myself. I have tried many versions: coconut oil, ghee, butter, coconut cream, refrigerated coconut milk from a can, shaken (after a couple of days in the fridge) and full fat yogurt. I always beat my eggs for 2-3 minutes (by hand) until very frothy before adding the wet ingredients then beat them again after incorporating wet ingredients to get them thick. Although I like them all, I have had the best results for rising (and actual ‘bread-like’ texture and loft) from coconut oil and yogurt. My husband eats gluten-free but not paleo so when his favourite GF bread was out at the store he was stuck (he’s a ‘must eat sandwich for lunch’ guy and we’ve tried all the GF varieties in our store, some of them complete rocks!). I offered to make him a loaf and he accepted (he’s had this loaf before but felt it’s texture was more like a banana bread or zucchini bread than sandwich material). I got rave reviews from him today about the bread for his sandwich (made with coconut oil and yogurt). Total convert!!
Some Paleo dieters emphasize that they never believed in one true caveman lifestyle or diet and that—in the fashion of Sisson's Blueprint—they use our evolutionary past to form guidelines, not scripture. That strategy seems reasonably solid at first, but quickly disintegrates. Even though researchers know enough to make some generalizations about human diets in the Paleolithic with reasonable certainty, the details remain murky. Exactly what proportions of meat and vegetables did different hominid species eat in the Paleolithic? It's not clear. Just how far back were our ancestors eating grains and dairy? Perhaps far earlier than we initially thought. What we can say for certain is that in the Paleolithic, the human diet varied immensely by geography, season and opportunity. "We now know that humans have evolved not to subsist on a single, Paleolithic diet but to be flexible eaters, an insight that has important implications for the current debate over what people today should eat in order to be healthy," anthropologist William Leonard of Northwestern University wrote in Scientific American in 2002.
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