Food in Antiquity: A Survey of the Diet of Early Peoples (Expanded Edition) by Don R. Brothwell and Patricia Brothwell is a survey of what is known archaeologically about food and drink in pre-modern times. The chapter on insects includes their food value. In beverages it covers what happens to a neglected jar of fruit juice. Under cannibalism it shows evidence of this being done in paleo times, thought most of the work focuses on the classical and near-eastern civilizations, but occasional mention is made of the mesoamerican cultures as well. There is taxonomic and anatomical information.
Hi Elana! I just found your website and I’m so glad that I did! I’ve been on a GF diet for about a month after having years of terrible GI problems. I can’t remember when I didn’t have GI issues, and have done a number of elimination diets to figure out the problem. I’ve visited a few gastroenterologists and they haven’t identified anything “wrong” with me. I still haven’t pinpointed it, but overall I feel happier knowing that I’ve omitted something that was such a big part of my life before. Your bread recipe was very much needed since I still have an affinity for bread-like (carb-y) foods. The bread is delicious and SO hearty. I was skeptical at first, but it turns out I’m hooked on the stuff! Unfortunately I didn’t have coconut flour, so I ended up using 2 T of GF flour, it still worked! I have a shipment coming soon and can’t wait to try it out with the CF! Thanks again, I look forward to reading more of your posts even though I’m not a paleo nut! ;)
But the Paleo diet bans more than just highly processed junk foods—in its most traditional form, it prohibits any kind of food unavailable to stone age hunter–gatherers, including dairy rich in calcium, grains replete with fiber, and vitamins and legumes packed with protein. The rationale for such constraint—in fact the entire premise of the Paleo diet—is, at best, only half correct. Because the human body adapted to life in the stone age, Paleo dieters argue—and because our genetics and anatomy have changed very little since then, they say—we should emulate the diets of our Paleo predecessors as closely as possible in order to be healthy. Obesity, heart disease, diabetes, cancer and many other "modern" diseases, the reasoning goes, result primarily from the incompatibility of our stone age anatomy with our contemporary way of eating.
About 3 years ago I went grain free for the second time in my life. At that time I downloaded about 20 grain free bread recipes three were good and edible and could withstand the rigors of actual lunch meat/sandwich making, but this one has stood the test of time. This is the recipe I go back to every time, it delicious and passes the sandwich test. Here s what I have learned: I like to make a double batch, I like to beat the wet ingredients into a stiff foam, everything works best at room temperature, the baking time is about an hour in a glass pyrex loaf pan, It MUST be stored in the fridge wrapped in a paper towel then in a zippy bag, it needs to be toasted for sandwiches. I make this bread for non grain-free friends and neighbors and they love it too.

Alina Bradford is a contributing writer for Live Science. Over the past 16 years, Alina has covered everything from Ebola to androids while writing health, science and tech articles for major publications. She has multiple health, safety and lifesaving certifications from Oklahoma State University. Alina's goal in life is to try as many experiences as possible. To date, she has been a volunteer firefighter, a dispatcher, substitute teacher, artist, janitor, children's book author, pizza maker, event coordinator and much more.
How many eggs did you use when you increased it by 50%? I had a mini loaf pan that was 3 1/2″ by 6″ It came put great but when I got to the center of the loaf I did find a small spot that was still raw dough. Not enough to ruin the loaf though. I used a combination of Bob’s Red Mill almond flour and King Arthur almond flour. Anxious to try it in a full sized loaf pan though if I can figure out how many eggs to use.
Legumes are members of a large family of plants that have a seed or pod. This category includes all beans, peas, lentils, tofu and other soyfoods, and peanuts. Legumes are not allowed on paleo because of their high content of lectins and phytic acid. Similar to grains, this is a point of controversy in the scientific community. In fact, lots of research supports eating legumes as part of a healthy diet because they are low in fat and high in fiber, protein and iron.
The Paleo diet follows the basic principle of “eat foods a caveman would have access to.” Or better yet known as “eat whole foods.” This would include plenty of healthy fats, proteins and produce, but exclude grains, dairy and processed foods. This diet also emphasizes grass-fed, wild caught and free range options - similar to the type of protein options a caveman would have to hunt or gather on their own. 
Sounds great. I just wondered if I chose to use just coconut flour and not almond, how much more coconut flour would I use than the original recipe calls for? I know that coconut flour soaks up much more liquid than almond floud so not sure if I would also need to add more liquid and if so what and how much? I’m new to paleo and not much of a cook but I’m trying to change that, esp with this new lifestyle change I’m trying to make. The Paleo bread I can get in stores is just too expensive, so I’m trying to do this on my own to save money. Also I need something like this to use with almond butter as a post-workout snack after hitting the gym. Options for portable protein are really limited, so that would work the best.
I think red meat from grain fed cattle and sheep IS bad for us . These animals were designed to eat grass. We were designed to eat meat, fat, vegetables , a few seeds and a little seasonal fruit. But never any kind of grain. ! When Man began farming and grain consumption , so began disease and illness. Today our food supply is being contaminated by Factory farming and GMOs.
I am BLOWN away by this bread! I added up the protein and net carbs … umm … WOW. A huge bonus is that both kids – one of whom is crazy picky – AND my husband both love it!!!! They devoured the first loaf within a few hours. This will obviously be a huge staple in our house. It’s really a God-send. Our son, who is the picky eater, is mostly picky about proteins. He won’t eat any meat except for chicken, no eggs or dairy. We’ve gone gluten/casein free to see if it helps with his autism and as much as I totally wanted to eliminate bread, I finally just had to accept that he HAD to eat a peanut butter and honey sandwich at lunch. My cracker/veggie/peanut butter dip thing just wasn’t working. Not only will he EAT this bread – he wouldn’t eat the other gluten-free breads I was making – it is actually giving him the ONE thing he needs most – PROTEIN. Seriously, thank you, thank you, thank you!!!!!!!!!!!!!
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I completely omitted the palm shortening and didn’t replace it with anything – I can’t tell that anything’s missing. I also doubled the recipe and put it all in one loaf pan like some others did and baked it for 30 minutes. Even the hubs, who is truly a bread addict, really likes this recipe! I think they’re kind of English Muffiny and I toast the slices for sandwiches. Gluten gives me eczema and I never thought I’d get a good sandwich bread again. Thank you! 🙂
Hi Gabriel, thank you! I think using bananas in this recipe will not work in place of the arrowroot. Although the bananas are also a starch, it will add moisture and affect the overall texture and taste. You could maybe substitute the yogurt for the bananas, but again the taste of your bread will be different. I have a few banana bread recipes on this blog. Do a search for banana bread to find them.
Whenever I come across a recipe and I want to convert it to grams I use the amount on say my bag of almond flour and calculate it out. My almond flour weighs out to be 112 grams per cup so for this recipe you would use 224 grams of almond flour (I use superfine Kirkland brand from Costco and I’ve also used Bob’s Red Mill superfine and they both work equally well). The 2 tablespoons of coconut flour is a small amount so I wouldn’t bother weighing that out. As for the flax seed, I buy mine whole and measure accordingly and grind in my coffee grinder.
I have recently discovered your website and I’m so pleased that I did. There is so much content there. It’s the bread I’m particularly interested in at this point since I have not had any bread for about two and a half years so I went straight there. I tried your world famous paleo bread and I must say it was very nice. However it does not look like your bread in that mine was much darker and much denser. I tried to find a comment where you addressed this issue but I only got as far as some comments regarding the height of the bread. You stated that the tin size was most likely incorrect. I’m sure my tin as a bit on the big side but when I look at the pic of your bread I can see yours is a much lighter bread than mine and also much lighter in colour.
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I am excited about this recipe for Paleo Sandwich Bread because even though it is completely grain and gluten free, it tastes amazing and the consistency is moist and soft just like the sandwich breads we were used to before changing our diet. In my opinion though, there is also a tiny hint of sweetness to it and this is due to the almond flour being sweeter than grain wheat flour.
I feel like I need to personally thank you for this recipe. I’ve had celiac disease for 7 years and have never been able to find (or make) a bread substitute that reminds me of the oh so glutenfull bread I used to enjoy, namely sandwich bread. I literally make these 1 if not 2 times a week! They make incredible sandwiches, open face “pizza crusts” and so much more. This bread is the real deal and I can’t thank you enough!!!
I tried this several times and the taste was excellent, much better than expected. Even though not especially crumbly , it was for my monster sandwiches. So I tried a few times to modify it , and the one where I doubled the arrowroot and added one tablespoon of gum arabic worked really well. I looked up gum arabic in pubmed and could not find any negative effects, but some positive. Also I did use a substantial portion of butter from Brittany, which I found at Trader Joe’s. This butter is super tasty and since it is from southern europe probably approved by Dr. Gundry ( low casein A1).

I just made it using all the the optional ingredients but I didn’t have a food processor so I whipped/mixed everything by hand. One thing I noticed is that the top of the bread cracked unevenly. Could I have over fluffed the egg whites? Maybe creating an artificial cut in the middle could solve that next time? It rose very well and nearly doubled in size, though the size is still a bit small for my liking. I will most likely use 1.5x the amount next time. It smells great and I’m about to chow down on this!
Richard Nikoley has the blog Free The Animal. He loves meat eating. His diet is near paleo, with the addition of some gray-area foods that he likes. These days most of his posts are on food. One recent trend in the paleo community is trying to optimize the proportions of the foods eaten. If you've read my definition you'll know that I simply define the diet as foods in and out. One of Richard's posts: Optimality: A Fool's Errand? has produced a long discussion of this trend.
You’ve gotta love the folks over at TGIPaleo, they really know their stuff and it seems they’re always tinkering around in the caveman kitchens trying to whip up palatable Paleo food that keeps you within the Paleo guidelines. Here they’re doing their best to perfect the art of Paleo bread making, and they seem to have gotten it right on this one. Just to be sure they’ve gone and replicated their efforts in second version, covered below. They’ve used a combination of coconut flour, ground flax for heartiness, fiber and omega-3s, and arrowroot flour for added texture and taste.
Buried in the middle of The Revised Metabolic Oncolytic Regimen for Effecting Lysis in Solid Tumors one can find their diet recommendations for tumor control. It has a paleo diet orientation. Protein is 35%, preferably Omega 3 rich. Carbohydrates (also 35%) are only vegetables and fruit, no beans, bread, potatoes, or any grain. Then dietary and supplemental forms of fat should provide 20-30% of (daily) calories.
I want to marry you because of this recipe (okay, maybe a tad dramatic). I only had tapioca starch so made it according to your instructions and subbed the flaxseed meal for chia because that was all I had but this bread turned out perfectly. I’m not exactly paleo and I’m generally a good cook, bad baker but this worked even for the inept baker like me. Thank you so much! Next time, I think I’ll try topping it with sunflower seeds just for an extra bite!
This was my first foray into paleo breadmaking (and eating). DELICIOUS! I had to leave the room or else I would have eaten the whole loaf. I’m experimenting with recipes to try and find a GF sandwich bread that my kids will like. I’m going to make this again but will either use the coconut cream or use sweetened yogurt or add honey to make it a little sweeter. I’m also thinking about making it in a tin can so I can cut it into round slices.
Hi Lina, the secret to baking perfectly with almond flour is by using the “right” kind almond flour. This means your almond flour should be ground into fine powder and have the skin removed. There are only a few brands I recommend. Both Honeyville and Welbee’s blanched almond flour work well for baking. Bob’s Red Mill brand will not works, it creates oily, dense baked goods that also sink in the middle.

I love this recipe and I like to tweak things. I came up with a tweak to make banana bread. Since holiday baking is my weakness and I had an almost suicidal reaction to wheat (I really know I’m allergic now) I wanted some banana bread. I subbed 1 cup of almond flour to walnut flour, omitted the ACV, added sweetener to taste, 1 tsp vanilla, 1 tsp pumpkin pie spice (sugar free) and 1 mashed banana. I LOVE banana so I also added a little banana flavoring. Baked up to a heavenly bread that I can eat without bloating and severe mood reactions!! I LOVE this site for recipes!! My next attempt will be either pumpkin bread or orange cranberry. Makes a great “I NEED SWEET” snack or breakfast as I’m zooming out the door.
Sounds like your baking soda is old and/or spoiled. It explains the lack of rise, tingling tongue, chemical taste (washing soda [sodium carbonate, I think] is made by heating baking soda [sodium bicarbonate] in big ovens), and maybe the extra salty flavor, too. I’ve had bad baking soda spoil baked goods, and it’s a real bummer. Hope you try again, though.

I made it today. Didn’t have applesauce so I tried apricot puree. Not sure what the batter should look like mine was thick so added juice from the stewed apricots had to add water so that it resembled batter. Didn’t have the round pans so I used little loaf pans took longer to bake. End result bread chewy not fluffy doesn’t taste bad but definitely not what the picture shows. Will have to remember the applesauce next time. ? Does the batter resemble pancake batter or a quick bread batter


The Great Cholesterol Con by Anthony Colpo. The definitive book on the non-dangers of dietary cholesterol and saturated fat was The Cholesterol Myths by Uffe Ravnskov, 2000. This book is six years newer. Its forward is by Uffe Ravnskov. To get a wonderful description of the book read the leading review at Amazon. The many reviews there average to 5 stars.
The best part about baking up this bread is that it makes your whole house smell like you’re making cinnamon rolls. Scratch that, the real best part is eating this bread because it tastes like you’re eating cinnamon rolls. The only difference is you won’t be eating a bunch of artificial and processed ingredients, and instead you’ll be getting nourished by foods that your body craves, like flax seed, banana, honey, and more. Here’s a bread that you can really sink your teeth into and be totally happy with what you taste.
I don’t have a processor big enough for the ingredients so I used my big mixer. I was afraid that the bread would come out tough because I used the mixer, but it wasn’t. It came out light and delicious, with a nice brown crusty crust and a soft inside-I love the nutty flavor. This one is a keeper- I’ll be making this often. Ditto your paleo breakfast bread.

Hi Elana, first let me say this bread is DELICIOUS! It turned out sweet, very moist, and just wonderful. HOWEVER, I am new to gluten free baking and despite the deliciousness of the bread, I ended up with a very faint ammonia-ish smell/after-taste and for the life of me I cannot figure out why. The only difference in the way I made my bread from your recipe is that I used whole, raw almond meal and whole, raw flaxseed meal, because that is what I had on hand. Oh and i used pure maple syrup instead of honey.


And again, there’s no concrete scientific proof that the paleo diet wards off disease, Sandon says. Any evidence of its benefits is anecdotal. Although some studies seem to support the benefits of the paleo diet, many scientists still believe we don’t yet have enough evidence to know whether the eating approach is totally healthy and without risk. “Nobody knows the long-term effects of this diet because no one has researched it to any degree,” Sandon says. It’s not really a new concept; instead it’s one that’s been recycled through the years, she adds.
Liza, I haven’t tried this recipe using cashew flour, but if you’ve had success using a 1:1 substitution for almond flour making other bread-type recipes, I think it could work! I also haven’t tried this recipe using coconut milk, but other readers have and said it works well. Yes, please let us know how it goes if you try it with these substitutions!
Bread was phenomenal!! I followed the recipe exactly, I had a bread pan that was about an inch wider than yours but bread still rose. Looks great, looks just like a loaf of banana bread! The bread is very buttery in flavor, I can’t have more than one slice it’s pretty rich. It’s a dense bread like banana bread. I was SO excited when I pulled it out of the oven and it looked and tasted good I did a little “I made BREAD!” dance. Alas, bread, I have missed you…
Can you put any yeast in the mixture? And if you did, would it help it rise more in addition to tasing more “yeasty”? I have been making (with great results) a browner, wheat colored bread from a recipe called Diedre’s For Real Low Carb Bread. It uses yeast and only has one rise after kneading with my dough hook attachment on my mixer. I would like to try some white bread.
Eat low to moderate amounts of fruits and nuts. Try to eat mostly fruits low in sugar and high in antioxidants like berries as well as nuts high in omega-3, low in omega-6 and low in total polyunsaturated fat like macadamia nuts. Consider cutting off fruits and nuts altogether if you have an autoimmune disease, digestive problems or are trying to lose weight faster.
As a follow up to my post a few days ago about the ammonia smell after I slice the bread…..someone mentioned it could be the flax. So I baked a loaf and substituted chia for the flax, and still got the ammonia smell. I am wondering if there is some kind of chemical reaction taking place? And if so, I would assume this is not safe to eat? Is it the baking soda? Or apple cider vinegar? I don’t want to keep using up all my almond flour (I use Trader Joe’s), so if someone has any insight I would love to hear. Thanks
You really can make any kind of bread Paleo friendly. This flatbread would be perfect for a dairy-free pizza or scooping on fresh tomatoes bruschetta-style. Best of all, it's super low-key to make; you just need coconut flour, Paleo baking powder, and egg whites, plus whatever herbs you want to spice it up with (try rosemary or basil for some fresh flavor).
I used the right sized pan after reading further into the blog it was the almond flour I used it was almond meal/flour. I went to one of your preferred sites and ordered flour from there. I am new to this type of baking so I am learning as I go. Do you have the nutritional breakdown of this bread printed somewhere? I am not seeing it on the recipe.
Delicious! I had to use white rice flour as I didn’t have coconut and it wasn’t available at the store across the street. It smelled a bit odd, but tastes great! Anyone have any ideas as to why all my breads come out the height of biscotti (ok, maybe a little taller, but not much)? I use a Pyrex glass loaf pan. I try to avoid using Aluminum cookware and I’m tempted to try the cast iron pan that several people raved about, but I am definitely looking for a sandwich bread shape. I would love some feedback on that.
Scott, Thanks so much for trying the bread, I’m sorry to hear the inside isn’t fully cooked for you. I wouldn’t cover the loaf while cooking, I would just leave the loaf in longer until fully cooked. Was the middle still uncooked, but the outside starting to burn? If that’s the case you might want to have your oven calibrated to make sure it’s accurate. Another thing you could try is reducing the temperature slightly (maybe by 25 degrees) and letting the loaf finish cooking at a lower temp so the outside doesn’t get too dark. I hope this helps!
Hi Elana! I just found your website and I’m so glad that I did! I’ve been on a GF diet for about a month after having years of terrible GI problems. I can’t remember when I didn’t have GI issues, and have done a number of elimination diets to figure out the problem. I’ve visited a few gastroenterologists and they haven’t identified anything “wrong” with me. I still haven’t pinpointed it, but overall I feel happier knowing that I’ve omitted something that was such a big part of my life before. Your bread recipe was very much needed since I still have an affinity for bread-like (carb-y) foods. The bread is delicious and SO hearty. I was skeptical at first, but it turns out I’m hooked on the stuff! Unfortunately I didn’t have coconut flour, so I ended up using 2 T of GF flour, it still worked! I have a shipment coming soon and can’t wait to try it out with the CF! Thanks again, I look forward to reading more of your posts even though I’m not a paleo nut! ;)
Thank you so much for your recipe. This is the best keto bread recipe I have come across. There is only one suggestion it’s better to use medium size 8X4 inch pan to get perfect size slices. There is one question., can we replace coconut flour with almond flour completely? If yes what is the quantity for almond flour in this case? Thank you once again.
I had an awful experience with the recommended Magic Line loaf pan. The uncoated “natural” aluminum this pan is made of can dissolve and leach into food that contains acidic ingredients. I’ve been using anodized aluminum cookware for years to prevent this from happening, and I should have known better, but I ordered the pan from Amazon anyway because I wanted the little square slices.

Paleo Pals: Jimmy and the Carrot Rocket Ship by Sarah Fragoso. Piper, Phoenix and Parker are not ordinary children–they are super heroes that travel the land helping other children learn about living the healthiest, most exciting, most super lives possible. They are known as The Paleo Pals, and this is a story about how they help out Jimmy, a little boy who is not sure if eating paleo food is even one tiny bit exciting or super. Published February 7, 2012.
How inventive!! Elana, we would love for you to share this wonderful recipe with our community since I know our Paleo/Primal friends will just love this. If you’re interested, please take a minute to submit the recipe at fastpaleo.com/upload-a-recipe/. Feel free to plug your blog at the beginning of the directions section, and we’re more than happy to give your Facebook page a shoutout when we post it! This is exactly the kind of delicious and healthy recipe people are asking for!
[…] Review: I tried my best to modify my mom’s stuffing recipe with paleo bread, but some things are not meant to be.  Stuffing is one of those things that need the real thing in order to taste authentic.  It wasn’t terrible, but if you want that REAL stuffing taste, you won’t find it here. The bread recipe on it’s own was not bad at all, check it out here! […]
Love this bread!! I subbed ground salba seeds (chia) for the flax meal and it turned out great. (1/4 cup of salba seeds made 1/2 cup of salba meal) Also subbed using date sugar and coconut crystals for the honey and that worked fine. I did this to reduce glycemic impact/carbs by half. (I thought about leaving it out, but was afraid it was in there to counter the vinegar taste)
ok my bread did not quite look like this.it had ammonia scents. serious…. seriously working recipes….open to suggestion…my husband’s mum was a a baker…..I fail at every attempt to provide. Your assistance is helpful.thx I am the ever so lucky lin..plan to stay lucky….(ps do this b/c my bs is borderline.fasting bs +90……..and though, my spouse refuses to acknowledge it he has issues as wel).180 after a mango whatever…I love this man, and plan to keep him with me. forever….pls assist..so tired of numbers that are compromised….bull ..we are a unique community because we care…many others are impacted, they just do not connect… We are the only people who appear to care about what elevated glucose does to people….I care for my mum…….she is blind…..confused……multiple strokes..pls, keep helping…Mom was a pilot, a photograhpher, an independent woman from the age of 15. Now, she lves in a bedroom, vision gone, and momory deplleted…….life does not have to end this way. She loves your recipes……I prep them……you have made her happy…love, lucky lin………..
Some Paleo dieters emphasize that they never believed in one true caveman lifestyle or diet and that—in the fashion of Sisson's Blueprint—they use our evolutionary past to form guidelines, not scripture. That strategy seems reasonably solid at first, but quickly disintegrates. Even though researchers know enough to make some generalizations about human diets in the Paleolithic with reasonable certainty, the details remain murky. Exactly what proportions of meat and vegetables did different hominid species eat in the Paleolithic? It's not clear. Just how far back were our ancestors eating grains and dairy? Perhaps far earlier than we initially thought. What we can say for certain is that in the Paleolithic, the human diet varied immensely by geography, season and opportunity. "We now know that humans have evolved not to subsist on a single, Paleolithic diet but to be flexible eaters, an insight that has important implications for the current debate over what people today should eat in order to be healthy," anthropologist William Leonard of Northwestern University wrote in Scientific American in 2002.
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