Was very excited to try this recipe (amended version) because it did not call for rice flour and because it was GF and Paleo. However, after spending the $15.00 + $11.00(s/h) for the pan, and the cost of the ingredients, I am very disappointed. Bread looked good and spelled good until cutting it and found that the center was raw, gooey, and smelled bad. Had to throw it all away.
My substitutions were coconut flour instead of arrowroot and honey for maple syrup AND regular gluten free flour instead of almond flour….some almond flour but not all. I also used 3 large eggs instead of 4 medium ones. With saying all of that I had to put more liquid in..it was too dense. Coconut flour needs more liquid. The bread tastes great but it’s too dense and didn’the rIse enough. Did the maple syrup vs honey or lack of one egg have anything to do with that density? I also don’the like the sweet taste in bread. Don’t eat any sugar so I am probably super sensitive to that taste. Your thoughts on the density, not rising enough and 3 large eggs vs 4 medium ones, in terms of making the bread rise more? Also would like a harder seeded bread. Do u have a recipe for that? I like hard breads. The taste is very good but not for breakfast or sandwiches. Not for me at any rate. Any suggestions? Thanks for ur help!

Success! My very first attempt at baking “paleo”. This is very tasty and so very easy. I used the recipe with honey and coconut oil. I recently shifted my diet to low carb and no sugar, and really needed a bread that fit the new diet. This is perfect. THANK YOU for sharing the years of experience and knowledge you have with cooking Paleo. I think the size of the pan is very important to get a rise out of the mixture, so folks just follow this fool proof recipe and enjoy. I bought your recent book, Paleo Cooking, on iTunes so it is easy to have the recipe at my fingertip on my phone right there in the kitchen.
Alpha Amino is the ultimate performance, hydration and recovery sports drink powder. Its premium formula is built on the power of amino acids and formulated with ingredients that promote healthy fluid balance. Alpha Amino has 14 Amino Acids including a well-studied 2:1:1 BCAA ratio. These Amino Acids support the body’s ability to fuel skeletal muscles, preserve muscle glycogen stores and reduce protein breakdown.
I’ve been looking for a great gf, low carb, yeasted bread recipe and this one is perfect! I didn’t have enough flaxseed meal so subbed chia seeds and didn’t grind them but it turned out fine. Didn’t have whey protein isolate so used collagen powder. I like a lot of texture so added 1/4 rounded cup of pumpkin seeds and same amount of sunflower seeds. My loaf rose to only about 2 1/2″ high but it has a nice crumb and wonderful flavor. Definitely my bread of choice now!!

This is one of the best gluten-free bread recipes I’ve tried. I made mine in a 9 x 5 loaf pan. It’s a little vertically challenged, but it still tastes good and has a nice texture to it. I’m a recovering carb-junkie who realized the one thing I craved most was likely a factor in decades worth of digestive grief. As an experiment, I eliminated wheat products from my diet and my digestive health has shown significant improvement. But I have so missed my morning toast with peanut butter. This bread is a great replacement, one that’s both tasty and nutritious (unlike store bought GF bread). It’s delicious with peanut butter, jam, butter, or just on its own. Thank you for the wonderful recipe! 

Hi Melissa, Are you beating the whole eggs? It needs to be egg whites only. Whole eggs will never form peaks. Adding a little cream of tartar helps, as well as making sure you start with a very clean bowl (preferably not plastic if you’re having issues). Having the egg whites at room temperature can be a little easier, too, though I usually don’t need to. Hope this answers your question!

The Paleo Diet Cookbook: More than 150 recipes for Paleo Breakfasts, Lunches, Dinners, Snacks, and Beverages by Loren Cordain. Also contains two weeks of meal plans and shopping and pantry tips. Helps you lose weight and boost your health and energy by focusing on lean protein and non-starchy vegetables and fruits. Note that this is a very low-fat book and is being marketed as such. Published December 7, 2010.
I don’t know what i’m doing wrong with this bread. I’ve made it a few times as i like how it tastes toasted but it will not cook properly in the center. Every time i cook it i end up cooking it for another 30mins longer then the recipe requires and it’s still coming out moist in the center. You could not use it without toasting put it that way. Could it be because i’m using Canned coconut milk as opposed to yogurt? I’ve tried continuing to cook with foil over the top once the outside starts to look well done so the inside can keep cooking too.

I’m excited to hear that! If I have a chance to do any recipe testing myself, I will let you know if I come up with anything worthwhile . . .Staying tuned and looking forward to it! Is there any way for me to be notified of your replies to my comment(s)? I had to come back to this page to see this, so just wondering (and I do have the box clicked about “notify me of follow-up comments by email”). Thanks again!


Hi, Elana. Just wanted to let you know that I love this bread recipe. I make it all the time. Not long ago, I had an epic fail because I forgot to let my ingredients come to room temperature. I had quite an issue with tunneling. The bread was unusable for slicing, but I decided to cube it and dry it in the oven so I’d have some gluten-free bread for stuffing. I used it to convert my treasured cornbread stuffing recipe to a gluten-free version, and it turned out great. My recipe will be featured on my blog(www.gardenforestfield.com), with a link to your bread recipe, on Monday, Nov. 18th. Thanks for all you do.
Chances are, if you're following the paleo diet, you're reallllly missing bread. We don't blame you! Bread is a huge part of our routines, from avocado toast at breakfast to tomato soup and grilled cheese for dinner. There's just too many good things to eat on bread! This recipe will help curb your carb-y cravings, and is sturdy enough to recreate all your favorite sandwiches and toasts. Curious? Continue reading for answers to our most frequently asked questions.
There has been so much nutrition and dietary mis-information in the past 100 years, it’s very confusing to sort it all out. I’m thankful I found Paleo! And as paleo shoppers, we know to avoid the center of the market and stick to the outside loop which is where we find the lean proteins, the nuts, seeds, greens, vegetables and fruits. It not only saves us time when we shop, it keeps us healthy.
Made it last night and my husband & I ate the whole loaf! I used olive oil instead of palm oil, and I used arrowroot instead of tapioca flour. Also, I baked for 22min in a mini-loaf pan and let it cool for 15-20min before slicing. I got 8 small slices and they were delicious! Very fluffy and raised nicely during baking. The texture was extremely fluffy and just like any sandwich roll as you’d expect.

This is the second incarnation of Paleo Bread attempted by the TGIPaleo gang, and they’ve made a few adjustments and seem to have gotten the hang of this. This version keeps the coconut flour but does away with the flax and the arrowroot flour. Instead they’re using egg whites and applesauce to get the job done, and they seem pretty pleased with themselves, as we have yet to locate a third version. Try both and see which one you like best, because they really are different styles of the same sort of bread.


The Paleo diet cuts out all grains, legumes, dairy and added sugar with the intent to get your body feeling good and your gut healthy. While a dessert that’s Paleo doesn’t justify indulging in a sweet treat every day, it does cut out any processed refined ingredients that are killing your waistline. Using natural ingredients like coconut sugar, coconut oil, and maple syrup (instead of white sugar) can have a major impact on your blood sugar spikes and reduce those continuous cravings that come along with them. Instead of going for those mysterious desserts, go back to a human diet and get your nutrition on with real food!
I made this yesterday. I made 1.5 times the recipe for a larger loaf pan and used apple butter (no sugar, just reduced apple) instead of yogurt or coconut butter. I had the same issue with the center being uncooked. Lesson learned that it needs to stay in longer but the pieces we cut off from around the center were very good. I was very impressed with this recipe. Thank you!
I finally had a chance to try this receipe yesterday. I liked the taste, but for some reason it did not rise very much. When I put all of the batter in the pan(yes, I used recommended pan), it filled only half of the pan, and after baking, it stayed almost at almost the same level. The baking soda was not old(bought 1 month ago). Does anyone know what I might have done wrong? I whisked the ingredients, instead of using food processer. Could it be a reason? Or was it because I used regular flax seed grounded by muself?
Legumes are members of a large family of plants that have a seed or pod. This category includes all beans, peas, lentils, tofu and other soyfoods, and peanuts. Legumes are not allowed on paleo because of their high content of lectins and phytic acid. Similar to grains, this is a point of controversy in the scientific community. In fact, lots of research supports eating legumes as part of a healthy diet because they are low in fat and high in fiber, protein and iron.

Andrew. it probably was almond flour and they called it powder to let people know it was finely ground. I think next time be sure to preheat your oven and if you can get an oven thermometer to make sure the temperature is where you want it. Also, use arrowroot instead of tapioca if you can find it. You could blend the wet ingredients in a blender or beat the eggs well. You can also beat the egg whites until stiff peaks form and then gently fold that into the batter to give your bread more lift. Keep me posted please 🙂
One flour you’ll definitely want to familiarize yourself with on Paleo is almond flour. It comes in handy in dozens of different baking applications and it provides a pretty darn good substitute to general purpose flour. This almond loaf was made using almond flour and a few select additional ingredients like coconut oil and apple cider vinegar. This recipe is good for showing you how easy it is to come up with a loaf of Paleo bread. It isn’t exactly rocket science so don’t be afraid to try it out if you’ve never made bread from scratch before.
Hi Jane! I think you will be fine! I know that you’re learning to bake, but keep in mind that in recipe instructions I will tell you what you need to do and not what you don’t do. In this case I’ll tell you to mix with your hand mixer and it will thicken as you mix and then you stop (i.e. if I don’t tell you to knead it by hand or use a dough hook it’s assumed that you don’t need one!). There’s also a recipe video in this page of the methodology for my yeast doughs, and there’s no hand mixing or dough hooks etc ;). You just have to trust the process a little bit, but you’ll also get that with more baking 😉 xo!
Thank you soooo much for posting this recipe. I have been eating grain free and paleo since mid December and have been craving a nice sandwich. I have tried several bread recipes, but have found them to be dry, this bun recipe is AWESOME. It is moist, tasty and doesn’t fall apart — delish and sure has added a lot of new choices to my menu. It is awesome toasted which adds even more — BLTs here I come. So easy to make. I use a 4″ silicone mold to make mine and they are absolutely perfect.
Thank you for this recipe Paola. I am diabetic and had been looking for a good recipe that looked and tasted like bread. I previously found another bread recipe that only worked for me if I made buns and not loaves….so I was very excited to try this….and it has become a staple in our house….the kids always ask for this bread. I have found that it doesn’t always have the rise I am looking for…..but it always tastes great. I have made quite a few things from your site!!….it has also become my go to site for great recipes…so once again…thank you.
I would first like to thank you so very much for your recipes, research and website…I Love them all!! I make your paleo bread every week and have been substituting egg whites for the eggs and I notice that my bread always has a crack in the center. It could be the oven, I’m not sure, but I really like the way it turns out with the egg whites. I make a double batch and bake it in a big bread pan so it is more like a loaf of sandwich bread. Thanks again for all you do
As you might expect from the previous paragraph, eating plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables naturally leads to higher fiber intake. Dietary fiber is essential for good health, and despite what you’ve probably heard, whole grains aren’t the place to find it. Non-starchy vegetables contain eight times more fiber than whole grains and 31 times more fiber than refined grains. Even fruits contain twice as much fiber as whole grains and seven times more fiber than refined grains!

Wowwwww!!! This is amazing. I had to change the recipe a bit (I followed the top recipe) because of lack of ingredients. I used Raw Almond Flour (not blanched); I used only three eggs + one chia egg + one flax egg; and my pan was about 8.5*4, so a bit bigger than recommended; I did not use the food processor, just mixed everything with a whisk and a spoon. Even though the pan was larger the height was great, and I’ve never had such a moist bread. Incredible! It is so delicious and wonderful. And so easy to make!! Thank you so much- I haven’t eaten anything like this since quitting gluten. This will be my go-to bread from now on.


re almond flour & coconut oil, any health food store staff would be super helpful in pointing you to the right ones, especially when you tell them you’ll baking. he showed me unbleached almond flour and coconut flour (Bob’s Red Mill is all over NYC, at least, and you can get it online http://www.amazon.com/Bobs-Red-Mill-Organic-16-Ounce/dp/B000KENKZ8/ref=sr_1_4?s=grocery&ie=UTF8&qid=1383057846&sr=1-4&keywords=bob%27s+red+mill+coconut their products are consistently great, IMHO)

Primal Blueprint Quick and Easy Meals: Delicious, Primal-approved meals you can make in under 30 minutes by Mark Sisson and Jennifer Meier. Every recipe is accompanied by an ingredient list, a nutrient list, clearly written instructions, and a picture of the ingredients and a picture of the finished product. Note that this is a primal book and many recipes include dairy. Published March 25, 2011.


Hi Valerie, so funny, I just got asked this question! 🙂 Here’s what I said, “…almond flour is a lot less absorbent than coconut flour (like A LOT). I know a few people have tried using oat flour with success, but I worry that almond flour would not be sufficient for absorbing the almond butter and creating a nice, firm texture. I’d recommend starting with about 3/4 cup almond flour, and experimenting as needed.” Hope this helps!
Thanks for the recipe! I actually made it this morning, but instead of making it as a loaf bread, I cooked the batter up pancake style. Mostly because I wanted “bread” quickly! I really wanted a BLT for breakfast so using your batter as a pancake, made it cook quickly. Then I quickly whipped up some homemade mayo and fried some bacon. What a tasty breakfast! Thanks again!!
I’ve been on a Keto diet for 8 weeks now and haven’t eaten any bread. This recipe should come with a warning – extra willpower required! ‘Cool in the pan for 2 hours’. Are you kidding me? It smelled so delicious I had to have a slice still warm, with butter. It was delicious. Next time I’ll be good and follow the instructions. Can’t wait to try the others. Thank you Elana!
I so miss bread fresh from the oven (I’m going to be adding the yeast)! You are absolutely correct about beaten egg whites creating air pockets. My family has always made buttermilk pancakes from scratch and we always separate the eggs, beat the whites to soft peaks and fold them in at the last minute. The pancakes rise beautifully! Have you tried this with your keto pancakes?
Cordain argues that chimpanzees and horses avoid meat, and they have big bellies that we would have if we didn’t ditch plants for meat. He also says meat increased human brain size, and decreased stomach size so we can have the six-pack abs that chimps can’t. But I looked at his endnotes with citations to research and couldn’t find the source for these theories. I also couldn’t find research showing that legumes and grains were invented by humans.
I am so happy to have found this delicious and easy recipe. I used a regular sized loaf pan and baked it about 5 minutes less time since the loaf is thinner. Also I think I will put a piece of parchment on the bottom of the pan next time as it stuck to the pan a little bit. I thought it had a kind of like a cornbread texture. It is so good though, I believe I will be eating some of this every day for the rest of my life. Can’t wait to try some of the suggested variations!
We’re loving the taste and texture of this–but like a few others, I came out with a dense. flat loaf (only about 1 1/2″ high). The liquid mixture seemed very thick, and the combined batter was almost a dough going into the pan, not exactly pourable. I know some almond flours behave differently; I used Bob’s Red Mill (only thing readily available here), if that makes a difference.

Ostensibly, Grok is "a rather typical hunter–gatherer" living before the dawn of agriculture—an "official primal prototype." He is the poster-persona for fitness author and blogger Mark Sisson's "Primal Blueprint"—a set of guidelines that "allows you to control how your genes express themselves in order to build the strongest, leanest, healthiest body possible, taking clues from evolutionary biology (that's the primal part)." These guidelines incorporate many principles of what is more commonly known as the Paleolithic, or caveman, diet, which started to whet people's appetites as early as the 1960s and is available in many different flavors today.


It turned out great! Such an amazing crust crunch and it has that spongy texture that all the other paleo breads don’t. It’s soft, light and spread on with Kerrygold salted butter!!! It’s got the slightest hint of sweet. Can’t wait to make my paleo strawberry jam for this! Also excited about applegate lunch meat with this bread for sandwiches! This will be a staple for us (im allergic to preservatives).
For all the recipes claiming to be the best paleo or Keto bread, I think yours is! I have found your recipe very helpful in satisfying keto cravings for bread. I am a personal chef and now a hero to my low-carb clients. I’d like to share this recipe in a cooking Keto article for our United States Personal Chef Association member magazine. Would you mind? It would of course be attributed to you/your site!

All content on elanaspantry.com is licensed and the original creation and property of elana's pantry (unless otherwise noted). You may use recipes from elanaspantry.com as long as their usage adheres to the following license criteria: (i) the recipe is to be credited to elanaspantry.com; such credit is to be linked back to the original recipe at http://www.elanaspantry.com/ (ii) you may not use any recipes for commercial purposes. Photos on elanaspantry.com may not be used.
How inventive!! Elana, we would love for you to share this wonderful recipe with our community since I know our Paleo/Primal friends will just love this. If you’re interested, please take a minute to submit the recipe at fastpaleo.com/upload-a-recipe/. Feel free to plug your blog at the beginning of the directions section, and we’re more than happy to give your Facebook page a shoutout when we post it! This is exactly the kind of delicious and healthy recipe people are asking for!
Hi! I eventually used flaxseed meal, as the recipe suggested so that could not have been it. I eventually made another loaf the next day, using the left over dry mixture I had, adding some more almond flour, and golden flaxseed meal. Essentially I reduced the ratio of the dry ingredients to give the loaf a more spreadable texture. That seemed to work, although I cannot remember exactly the ratio in which the dry ingredients were reduced! memo to self: make notes IMMEDIATELY.

The Paleo diet includes nutrient-dense whole fresh foods and encourages participants to steer away from highly processed foods containing added salt, sugar, and unhealthy fats. However, the omission of whole grains, dairy, and legumes could lead to suboptimal intake of important nutrients. The restrictive nature of the diet may also make it difficult for people to adhere to such a diet in the long run.  More high-quality studies including randomized controlled trials with follow-up of greater than one year that compare the Paleo diet with other weight-reducing diets are needed to show a direct health benefit of the Paleo diet. Strong recommendations for the Paleo diet for weight loss cannot be made at this time.


I just tried this for the first time tonight and followed the recipe exactly. I bought all of your recommended brands of ingredients, including the right sized pan. The texture is great (though the bread is still hot out of the oven!) and the taste is pretty good. Let’s face it, it’s not yeasted/gluten bread. But it’s definitely a very acceptable substitute. I really appreciate the nutritional content of this bread. Most of the commercial gluten-free products make me crazy with their nutritional emptiness. Looking forward to trying more of your recipes.
I was hesitant at first to try to make the bread because I didn’t want to waste the expensive ingredients. Well the bread taste even better. It doesn’t have any eggy flavor. It actually taste better than any paleo bread I’ve ever had. It was a little dense and didn’t rise as much but it was a first try with seed flour. I did have a reaction from the seeds and the baking soda. Green spots lol. My neighbor said it was the best I have ever made. It will need some tweaking. So Adriana if you find a better way to make this rise better please let me know. It was also a little greasy but just a little. I. Trying pumpkin seeds next. Thank you so much for giving us a great bread recipe that is so versitile. if anyone finds a way to improve this please let me know. You will be very happy if you try this with sunflower seed flour.
I had the same effect but I used the same pan. The issue I had was the egg whites. I beat them with a mixer for 2 minutes with the cream of tartar and still couldn’t get them whipped. I’d say they were half whipped. I gave up and put them in the loan pan anyway. The bread looked the same and tasted great but it was somewhat spongy. I’m wondering if the egg whites really wouldn’t whip because I didn’t realize they had to be room temp. The bread is great but it won’t hold up for sandwiches. Any tips on egg whipping? I felt egg defeated today!
The only bad thing about this bread is that I CAN’T STOP EATING IT! Lol. I’ve been without bread for two months. The first recipe I tried from Pinterest was a flax loaf that was a huge failure. This recipe was easy to make and turned out awesome. I used three eggs instead of four because I only had large/extra large eggs to choose from. It has the texture of banana bread so I originally thought it will be more of a treat vs a sandwich bread. I’ve been putting jams on it but then I saw the suggestion of pesto with tomatoes so I will be trying that next and will also try toasting it. Much thanks to the creator of this recipe and for sharing it!
Hi Connie, I don’t recommend using whole eggs in this recipe. The two recipes are very different. The egg whites in this recipe are beaten to stiff peaks to create the fluffiness. You could fold the yolks in later, but you’d need to modify the other ingredients, and besides, the bread would turn out very egg-y. The other recipe has fewer eggs than this one, and they are added differently.
Hands down, the absolute best low carb bread recipe ever!!! I made it last night and I am blown away!!! I’ve tried a lot of low carb bread recipes trying to find something close to the “carby” bread I once loved, and you have solved my dilemma. This bread is better than the carb-laden kind (in my opinion) and I am so happy to be able to enjoy toast, sandwiches and any other idea that comes to my mind for utilizing this bread. I can’t wait to make another batch because I didn’t leave this one in quite long enough, but I am certain of it’s potential! God bless you.
I wanted to say thank you for the recipe. I made it today with my Vitamix. I used whole raw almonds and whole flax seed that I ground up in the Vitamix in batches rather than almond flour and flaxseed meal. I substituted two single serving packages of stevia for the honey and mixed everything in the Vitamix. My bread turned out great and tastes wonderful. The almond skins and stevia changed the color a little from the picture on the web site but my loaf still looks good (lighter crust and darker interior). (I used 1.5 cups of whole almonds, 2 tablespoons coconut flour, ¼ cup of whole flaxseeds, ¼ teaspoon salt, 1.5 teaspoons baking soda, 5 large eggs, ¼ cup coconut oil, 2 packets of stevia, and 1 tablespoon of apple cider vinegar in the Magic Loaf Pan.) Thanks again.
Sounds great. I just wondered if I chose to use just coconut flour and not almond, how much more coconut flour would I use than the original recipe calls for? I know that coconut flour soaks up much more liquid than almond floud so not sure if I would also need to add more liquid and if so what and how much? I’m new to paleo and not much of a cook but I’m trying to change that, esp with this new lifestyle change I’m trying to make. The Paleo bread I can get in stores is just too expensive, so I’m trying to do this on my own to save money. Also I need something like this to use with almond butter as a post-workout snack after hitting the gym. Options for portable protein are really limited, so that would work the best.
And again, there’s no concrete scientific proof that the paleo diet wards off disease, Sandon says. Any evidence of its benefits is anecdotal. Although some studies seem to support the benefits of the paleo diet, many scientists still believe we don’t yet have enough evidence to know whether the eating approach is totally healthy and without risk. “Nobody knows the long-term effects of this diet because no one has researched it to any degree,” Sandon says. It’s not really a new concept; instead it’s one that’s been recycled through the years, she adds.

Ok, I did mine a little different. I can’t eat the almond flour so I substituted non glutton Oat flour and I also added chia seeds. I wasn’t able to get the right sized pan, mine is the larger one, so I noticed that the bread wasn’t going to be very high, so …. I made another batch of bread, added it to the lower layer and cooked. Oh wow!! So good!! But I can’t eat it all at once. Poo! Anyway, don’t be afraid to use the bigger pan, just double the recipe.
Eat low to moderate amounts of fruits and nuts. Try to eat mostly fruits low in sugar and high in antioxidants like berries as well as nuts high in omega-3, low in omega-6 and low in total polyunsaturated fat like macadamia nuts. Consider cutting off fruits and nuts altogether if you have an autoimmune disease, digestive problems or are trying to lose weight faster.
Sweden's Staffan Lindeberg has a home page Paleolithic Diet in Medical Nutrition [archive.org]. A recent study of Staffan's has A Paleolithic diet improving glucose tolerance more than a Mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischemic heart disease. Also see his first web page, an overview of his Kitava study: On the Benefits of Ancient Diets. Now he has a book Food and Western Disease: Health and nutrition from an evolutionary perspective. Here's a book review: Easy to Read, Informative, Packed with Footnotes on Studies.

Ana, We like using a combination of almond flour and coconut flour for this bread to achieve the best flavor and texture. We haven’t tried this bread using only coconut flour, but it may work. Coconut flour absorbs liquid differently, so you’ll want to use about 1/4 the amount of coconut flour as almond flour (since the recipe calls for 2 cups almond flour, that would be 1/2 cup coconut flour in addition to the 3/4 cup coconut flour that the recipe already calls for). However, the flavor and texture of this bread will likely be different with that substitution. Please let us know how it goes if you give it a try!
Most nutritionists consent that the Paleo diet gets at least one thing right—cutting down on processed foods that have been highly modified from their raw state through various methods of preservation. Examples include white bread and other refined flour products, artificial cheese, certain cold cuts and packaged meats, potato chips, and sugary cereals. Such processed foods often offer less protein, fiber and iron than their unprocessed equivalents, and some are packed with sodium and preservatives that may increase the risk of heart disease and certain cancers.
Alyssa, one more thing. Both the bowl and the beaters need to be spotlessly clean. If there is one hint of oil anywhere the whites will not beat properly. Nicole is correct about not using a plastic bowl. Plastic will even absorb oil to say nothing of the microscopic amounts that get into the surface when it’s scratched. When baking it is always best to use a metal or glass bowl for all of your mixing.
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