Thank you so much for this recipe!! I am Norwegian and eating bread for multiple meals is part of our culture. I have not had too many problems with switching to a paleo diet but I have sorely missed eating bread. I have tried many gluten free and paleo bread recipes out there but this is by far the best one. I used 4 wide mouth canning jar lids and otherwise followed your recipe exactly and they came out nice and fluffy and even held up with “wet” sandwich ingredients . I am going to try some of the variations in the comments. Thank you for bringing back a vital part of my culture!
I’m not a believer in vegan or Paleo diets. I believe in a healthy diet that leans somewhat in the vegetarian direction and I just became convinced of the need to eliminate wheat from my diet. I applaud this website and the author for providing me with the bread alternatives I was looking for. I also appreciated the open eclectic attitude of the author in including some items recommended by vegans. Still, I believe red meat should be avoided . Thank You.
While going bonkers and eating chocolate creations 3 times per day is unnecessary (and would sorta defeat the point of Whole30, and Paleo in general) I DO think it’s a great time to explore all the Paleo dessert options out there – so we can have our cake (quite literally) – and still feel awesome after eating it. That’s what Paleo treats and desserts are all about in my opinion – and it’s NO secret that I’m quite the fan of dessert, just check out the “sweet treats” section of the blog!
Maya, this is a beautiful looking bread. I’m going to try it, but before I do, I’d like to know if you have ever tried doubling the recipe. It seems that it would work–based on the fact that my almond flour bread that I have made for years uses 3 1/4 cups flour, and turns out pretty well. (I’m pretty content with my recipe, but admit that yours looks better due to the whiteness and it appears to have more air bubbles, indicating it’s probably lighter.) If I don’t hear from you, I’ll probably go ahead and double it, and use a 9×5 pan–wish me luck.
Sweden's Staffan Lindeberg has a home page Paleolithic Diet in Medical Nutrition [archive.org]. A recent study of Staffan's has A Paleolithic diet improving glucose tolerance more than a Mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischemic heart disease. Also see his first web page, an overview of his Kitava study: On the Benefits of Ancient Diets. Now he has a book Food and Western Disease: Health and nutrition from an evolutionary perspective. Here's a book review: Easy to Read, Informative, Packed with Footnotes on Studies.
I made the original version a while back and had the unfortunate “tunneling” effect that other people mentioned. The bread that did bake all the way through was delicious though so I tried again with the modified version. That took about 45 minutes total to bake but was cooked all the way through! And it’s just as delicious as the original! Had a couple slices tonight with some beef stew. Can’t wait to have some for breakfast tomorrow!
Well my Bread wasn’t tall enough for say sandwich stuff, and I am not sure if I did anything wrong, I know I used the wrong sized bread pan so that is one thing. However, I couldn’t believe how great it tasted, it was more like a moist custard shortbread. The texture and color were perfect. I cut some thick slices and buttered both sides cooked them in a pan. I spread some sugar-free preserves on top, wow is that good. I may not have made it as intended but I can’t complain. The flavor is amazing.
It turned out great! Such an amazing crust crunch and it has that spongy texture that all the other paleo breads don’t. It’s soft, light and spread on with Kerrygold salted butter!!! It’s got the slightest hint of sweet. Can’t wait to make my paleo strawberry jam for this! Also excited about applegate lunch meat with this bread for sandwiches! This will be a staple for us (im allergic to preservatives).
One question, when I released this bread out of the pan there was a very strong ammonia smell coming from the bread. After it cooled this ammonia smell was gone. I’m just curious what could cause that odor? Is it a reaction from the almond flour? I was just caught off guard when I bent over to get a whiff of the freshly baked loaf and it smelled of ammonia!
ok my bread did not quite look like this.it had ammonia scents. serious…. seriously working recipes….open to suggestion…my husband’s mum was a a baker…..I fail at every attempt to provide. Your assistance is helpful.thx I am the ever so lucky lin..plan to stay lucky….(ps do this b/c my bs is borderline.fasting bs +90……..and though, my spouse refuses to acknowledge it he has issues as wel).180 after a mango whatever…I love this man, and plan to keep him with me. forever….pls assist..so tired of numbers that are compromised….bull ..we are a unique community because we care…many others are impacted, they just do not connect… We are the only people who appear to care about what elevated glucose does to people….I care for my mum…….she is blind…..confused……multiple strokes..pls, keep helping…Mom was a pilot, a photograhpher, an independent woman from the age of 15. Now, she lves in a bedroom, vision gone, and momory deplleted…….life does not have to end this way. She loves your recipes……I prep them……you have made her happy…love, lucky lin………..
I just found this recipe and I notice that the recipes are very similar: this one has the addition of a little coconut flour, half the salt and half the vinegar, but maintains the baking soda quantity. How does the the texture of this bread compare to your low carb corn bread? I’m very curious about what went into the decisions that differentiate the two breads.
Hello. I saw somewhere in your posts you gave the almond flour in grams. I can’t find it again. Could you tell me again. I did save the conversion chart you posted, but just want to make sure I get it exact. I have made this once. I need to get a few different products and then I think it won’t be so oily. Most of the photos posted and mine where dark in color. In your photo, the bread looks lighter in color. Any suggestions. Sorry if you already addressed these questions. There were so many comments to sort through. Thank you 🙂
I accidentally forgot mine when my “timer” didn’t remind me. I remembered it and pulled it out after it had been in the oven an extra 13 minutes. It was almost perfect. I also just whisked vigorously as my processor is missing since the last move. I will definitely make it again, but I will likely play with it a bit as I am hoping to find a few versions to make regularly to replace my family’s usual bread. Even our most finicky eater is loving these recipes so far. Thank you!
By far my favorite bread recipe! It turned out golden brown with a great flavor! Super easy and basic ingredients so you don’t have to run to the supermarket before making it. I asked my husband (not paleo or gluten free) to taste it and he thought it was good. That’s quite a compliment because he dislikes most gluten free/paleo things. Just a note, I’m at 9300 feet above sea level and it still raised and turned out delicious!
I want to marry you because of this recipe (okay, maybe a tad dramatic). I only had tapioca starch so made it according to your instructions and subbed the flaxseed meal for chia because that was all I had but this bread turned out perfectly. I’m not exactly paleo and I’m generally a good cook, bad baker but this worked even for the inept baker like me. Thank you so much! Next time, I think I’ll try topping it with sunflower seeds just for an extra bite!
Wheat Belly: Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight, and Find Your Path Back to Health by William Davis, MD. A renowned cardiologist explains how eliminating wheat from our diets can prevent fat storage, shrink unsightly "wheat belly" bulges, and reverse myriad health problems, like minor rashes and high blood sugar. The author contends that every single human will experience health improvement by giving up modern wheat. The book provides readers with a user-friendly, step-by-step plan to navigate a new, wheat-free lifestyle. Informed by cutting-edge science and nutrition, along with case studies from men and women who have experienced life-changing transformations in their health after waving goodbye to wheat. The author's blog. Published August 30, 2011.
A diet high in phytic acid, which can be found in whole grains (it's in the bran) and beans like soy, is very detrimental for mineral absorption. Phytic acid strongly binds to minerals like calcium, iron, zinc and magnesium to form insoluble salts, phytates, which precipitate from the body and are not absorbed. Staffan Lindeberg has written a summary on phytic acid.
Most nutritionists consent that the Paleo diet gets at least one thing right—cutting down on processed foods that have been highly modified from their raw state through various methods of preservation. Examples include white bread and other refined flour products, artificial cheese, certain cold cuts and packaged meats, potato chips, and sugary cereals. Such processed foods often offer less protein, fiber and iron than their unprocessed equivalents, and some are packed with sodium and preservatives that may increase the risk of heart disease and certain cancers.
I love this recipe and I have one slight problem, during baking the top cracks on either one or both sides and puffs up, which crates a separation from the rest of the loaf. Still tastes great though. I’m wondering if it’s from either not mixing enough or mixing too much in the food processor or if there is something else I’m doing wrong? Not sure how I can send you a picture of todays load?!
The Hiwi are not particularly healthy. Compared to the Ache, a hunter–gatherer tribe in Paraguay, the Hiwi are shorter, thinner, more lethargic and less well nourished. Hiwi men and women of all ages constantly complain of hunger. Many Hiwi are heavily infected with parasitic hookworms, which burrow into the small intestine and feed on blood. And only 50 percent of Hiwi children survive beyond the age of 15.
Once your yeast is proofed, add in the egg, egg whites, lightly cooled melted butter (you don't want to scramble the eggs or kill the yeast!) and vinegar. Mix with an electric mixer for a couple minutes until light and frothy. Add the flour mixture in two batches, alternating with the sour cream, and mixing until thoroughly incorporated. You want to mix thoroughly and quickly to activate the xanthan gum, though the dough will become thick as the flours absorb the moisture.
I also have had the “raw tunnel” of dough in the middle – TWICE now. I’ve followed the recipe to a “t,” except for the name brand Magic Line Pan (I do have the correct size pan though). Thanks for the tip to cover w/foil. I did it after the 30 min, but I’ll try it from the start. I also had added an extra 20 minutes. Strange ours turn out this way after reading how perfect others’ turn out?! Thanks gals! Happy baking!
I’m new to the whole GF thing – I don’t have a physical need/condition for eating grain free, but the whole concept of this healthy way of eating intrigues me, so I’m just “testing the waters.” It is very generous that Elana shares her recipes for free so that I can give it a try before jumping in with both feet – and when/if I do, I’ll be buying her recipe books. Great blog.
I made this bread today and it is AMAZING!!! I’ve been eating paleo, gluten free and dairy free since early November and the ONLY thing I have missed is bread. I can’t believe how light and moist this delicious bread is. It was wonderful warm and smeared with a layer of sunbutter and it made an amazing tuna sandwich later when it was cooled down. The only thing I would do differently next time is try not to eat the entire loaf in one day!! Thank you so much Elena. It’s PERFECT!
Made this divine loaf for the very first time this morning, following the recipe exactly. It’s already half gone! I’ve tried multiple paleo sandwich bread recipes and none of them have turned out great…except this one. It’s simply delicious. Thank you so much for sharing this recipe. It’s obvious that a lot of trial and error went into perfecting it. It’s so so good!
"Loren Cordain's extensive research demonstrates how modern westernized diets drastically depart from the original diet humans consumed for millions of years. In The Paleo Diet and The Paleo Diet Cookbook, Dr. Cordain shows how diets high in grains, dairy, vegetable oils, salt, and refined sugars are at odds with our genetic legacy and then shares his uncomplicated strategy for losing weight and getting healthy."
And again, there’s no concrete scientific proof that the paleo diet wards off disease, Sandon says. Any evidence of its benefits is anecdotal. Although some studies seem to support the benefits of the paleo diet, many scientists still believe we don’t yet have enough evidence to know whether the eating approach is totally healthy and without risk. “Nobody knows the long-term effects of this diet because no one has researched it to any degree,” Sandon says. It’s not really a new concept; instead it’s one that’s been recycled through the years, she adds.
You don’t always have to have ordinary bread when it comes to Paleo bread, and this recipe lets you have focaccia bread, which can really open the doors for a lot of gourmet sandwiches. Picture some nice organic roasted turkey breast resting between a few slices of focaccia, and some nice grilled vegetables to top it off. That’s the sort of meal that will leave you totally satisfied, and won’t put a dent in your waistline. The use of flaxseed meal, almond flour, whole eggs, and Extra Virgin Olive oil keeps you on the approved foods list and results in zero guilt.
This must be so challenging and stressful for you, but know that young children can be very picky eaters. Typically young children like very bland, slightly sweet tasting foods, so I can see why he would like an almond butter and honey sandwich. If you can find a grain free bread that looks like the bread he likes to eat, use one slice of regular and one slice of grain-free (keeping the grain free on the bottom). And/or as he is resistant to grain free bread at this time, maybe focus on introducing other foods that he may enjoy such as cucumber, red pepper or apple slices, small pieces of cooked chicken or sweet potato and serve these with a side of almond butter to dip them into. Try introducing grain free crackers, cookies or muffins as well as paleo smoothies (into which you can sneak some greens), keep the portions small and offer him variety alongside his sandwich. He may also like the entire routine of meals and may enjoy the same meal at the kitchen table or in his highchair, so maybe packing a picnic and eating at the park might help him to try some new flavors. I hope these suggestions help, keep us posted on how things go.
Thank you so much for this recipe. I haven t had bread since starting Paleo about 3 1/2 months ago. Then my husband asked me to make him Zucchini Blueberry Bread, which I find irresistible. I made his bread last night then found this recipe. I made it today. I added some shredded zucchini and a handful of blueberries to it. It appeared done after 90 seconds but had a raw section inside. So I simply microwaved it a little more. It was absolutely delicious. Thanks again.
Thank you for this recipe. This is so amazing – easy and delicious! I made it already three times today – the first time to see how it turns out, the other times because it was so good. My 10 years old son loved it and couldn’t stop eating it as a desert with a little maple syrup. He said that it tasted like Yorkshire pudding. In one of them I replaced the half spoon of butter with 1 tablespoon of unsweetened apple sauce – it became more moist and puffed up more than the others. I could still toast it in the toaster and was very good.
Fat and Cholesterol are Good for You by Uffe Ravnskov is a new book which includes updated and simplified sections from his previous one (The Cholesterol Myths). Ravnskov also presents his own idea about the cause of heart disease, an idea that explains all the findings that do not fit with the present view. It is a powerful book. Also see his web site. The Amazon.com reviews average to 5 stars. Published January 26, 2009.
I have to say I am not paleo but am very gluten sensitive. I do not enjoy the texture of many GF breads. I have been trying and looking for bread recipes that were good and grainy and would taste good untoasted for sandwiches. I really enjoy this bread! No toasting necessary! I enjoy playing with recipes so I did grind in some oatmeal for part of the flour. Or ground quinoa. Also have replaced some of the almond flour wth 1/2 cup of cassava flour (from yucca root). Thank you for this great recipe!
This bread is, hands down, THE best GF/paleo bread I have ever had or made in my life. It is so simple, so easy, so perfect, and so delicious that I haven’t been able to stop staring at it, mouth agape. (Quite convenient since that makes it easier for me to continuously eat it.) With Kerry butter it is simply divine. I will never want for another quick/soda bread recipe ever again.
Error msg again, sorry if this is redundant….lilely to not be as flowely, need to care for mom…………but I owe you great thanks…….keep you efforts us………I care for my 87 yr old mum……I keep her bs stable, I keep her contented………she loves your recipes….I am working to protect my husband who has numbers I do not like………I keep cooking to take care of everyoone……thankyou for taking the time to poste……I know my mum will have time defined by God……plan to kleep my spouse by my side so long as God can tolerate his absence………..ok, I am somewhat different…….but, this is about you, not me, so, thankyou for your efforts………………..sleep well………..luckylin
Flatbread is a nice change of pace to ordinary loaves, and it goes really well with all sorts of meals, and you can even make a meal out of it by using it to make a sandwich. This cheesey version is made using tapioca flour, so it will have a different texture and flavor than breads made with almond flour or coconut flour. The cheese they’re using is the kind that is usually given a nod on Paleo, unless you are being very strict. Hard cheeses like asiago and parmesan are usually given a pass because they don’t include as much dairy. It’s up to you to determine what your body can handle.
Just tasted this….excellent. Much fluffier than 2.0, though similar in flavor. I used coconut palm sugar syrup (boiled 1/2c water, added 1c organic coconut palm sugar, reduced heat for 3 min until dissolved, let cool before using, store in mason jar in fridge) which I use to replace any sweetener in baking…agave, honey, etc. Worked great in this as well. So moist too. Awesome texture! Thanks Elana!
This is amazingly similar to real bread. I made a few changes, but I’m so happy with how it turned out! I can’t wait to make this for my Mom. Next time I will double the recipe to get normal sized bread. The changes I made were that I used 3 eggs and 1 chia egg. I also baked 10 extra minutes because of all the complaints about a doughy center, but ended up overbaking. Next time I will stick to the original baking time. Thank you so much Elana! I love your vegan herb crackers as well; I eat vegan 4 times a week and they are life savers! Definitely a staple. I can tell that they are one of the things I will be taking to college with me once I graduate in 2 years :)
This way of eating has made me feel better in so many ways. I just had such a craving For the texture of cake or bread last night that I had a piece of cake and a sandwich wrap! I knew I had to find a way to satisfy that craving and considered eating a sandwich once a week. Now I can do it without too many carbs. Thanks for taking the time to make it come out right. No more carb BINGES for me.
I’ve never left a review before, but can’t help myself because this gluten-free bread is to die for (figuratively). Although, I did make a couple of adjustments because I’m allergic to tree nuts and sensitive to coconut products. In place of almond flour I made my own cashew flour (added raw cashews to food processor and let run until as fine as I could get it without it turning into butter). I substitute the coconut solid for Spectrum Organic Palm Oil shortening. I was worried that it would taste eggy with 4 eggs, but went ahead and used 4 eggs and YEAH — not eggy tasting (to me). P.S. Cashews nuts is not a tree nut, it’s a legume.
I went to buy Xanthan gum at a store in my little town and it was like $17! I wasn’t paying that much, so I made it without but I will be ordering some online. I followed your directions exactly (minus Xanthan) and used Swerve for the sweetener. I couldn’t wait for it to cool so I had a piece right after it came out of the oven, it was delicious! I find it a tad sweet for bread, but that’s ok I’ll just cut back on the sweetener if I want to eat it for a sandwich..all sweeteners are a little different. It had a beautiful crust on it and was a tiny bit crumbly, almost reminds me more of muffin texture, I’m thinking maybe the Xanthan will give it more of a chewy bread texture?
One flour you’ll definitely want to familiarize yourself with on Paleo is almond flour. It comes in handy in dozens of different baking applications and it provides a pretty darn good substitute to general purpose flour. This almond loaf was made using almond flour and a few select additional ingredients like coconut oil and apple cider vinegar. This recipe is good for showing you how easy it is to come up with a loaf of Paleo bread. It isn’t exactly rocket science so don’t be afraid to try it out if you’ve never made bread from scratch before.
To come back on the diet not being paleo….u can adjust a little…use coconut oil and the coconut cream and then it is paleo as she already wrote down. I follow the paleo diet via the dr terry wahls protocol because off my ms and not aloud butter neither so I made a couple of changes and btw! With the paleo u are aloud to eat for example Ghee butter,go and look it up!!!
Hi Brenda, There are various reasons but the most common one is that coconut flour is extremely absorbent and needs a lot of eggs to offset how much moisture it absorbs. If you used a liquid like milk or water, it would fall apart. That being said, this recipe is not dry or dense. Did you try making it? Whipping the egg whites creates the exact opposite effect and the bread turns out light and fluffy. Hope you’ll give it a try!
My loaf came out beautifully, just like a regular loaf. The toothpick came out clean – twice! – but when I got past the third slice, the middle was hollow and the edges of the hollow area was raw.I cut it out and ate the rest, but I’m puzzled why the toothpick came out dry when it wasn’t cooked through. It is, however, the best gf bread I’ve ever had, and I will make it again. I did have to convert the temperature to Celsius, and I have a fan oven, so I will check that out.
So, it’s my LAST DAY of the Whole30 (and perhaps yours, too!) the last day of January, and it’s time to welcome some Paleo treats back into my life. And yours, of course. It’s almost Valentines Day, right?! And – maybe it’s just me – but I can’t do Valentines Day without my fair share of chocolate. Luckily there are so many easy, deliciously indulgent chocolate recipes that taste classically rich but are made without any unhealthy ingredients.
Made it last night and my husband & I ate the whole loaf! I used olive oil instead of palm oil, and I used arrowroot instead of tapioca flour. Also, I baked for 22min in a mini-loaf pan and let it cool for 15-20min before slicing. I got 8 small slices and they were delicious! Very fluffy and raised nicely during baking. The texture was extremely fluffy and just like any sandwich roll as you’d expect.
“I only have a full size loaf pan, and did as someone else mentioned, increased the recipe by .5 (for the eggs did 8 eggs rather than 7), and it came out the perfect size and absolutely delicious. Looking forward to enjoying it the rest of the week. I used a glass full size loaf and cooked for 40 minutes at 350 degrees. I topped it with extra flax seeds because I too love the nutty flavor of flax.”
I’ve made this in my bread machine several times, and it comes out beautifully. I double the recipe, choose the quick bread setting and it produces a nice 1 kilo loaf (2.2 pounds). I’m using a Kenwood model BM450 as I’m in the UK, but I think the same machine is marketed in the US by DeLonghi, if anyone wants to compare specifications. I just dump all the ingredients in the pan in order, and give a couple of stirs around the edges of the pan with a spatula while its on the mix cycle (though I’m not sure if its even necessary), and that’s it.
Our family LOVES your paleo bread recipe (among others–like the muffins, cupcakes, cookies…) I’m wondering if have any plans to work on a Paleo Tortilla?? Mark’s Daily Apple posted one–I’ve made it a couple of times–changing the recipe a bit–but have not figured out a way to keep the tortilla from falling apart once you fill it. Any suggestions or tips would be GREATLY appreciated.
Just made this bread tonight and I love the texture. I am still deciding on the taste. It reminds me of cornbread which isn’t a bad thing, necessarily. I think when I make an actual sandwich out of it I will not even notice the difference. Also thinking it could be good for a casserole of some sort. We also had your Chipotle Orange Chicken and that was a big hit! I am loving this site, a huge THANK YOU!
I’m so sorry your bread crumbles, that’s so disappointing. That your dough didn’t become a firm ball indicates that a measurement might have been off. My best recommendations for baking grain-free include having all ingredients at room temperature, have the oven preheated, to measure everything accurately and to notice if things are happening the way they are supposed to, ie.: your dough is not firm. A soft dough would need you to add more flour to it, although if the dough is too soft because too much milk or fat was added, it will throw off the balance of everything else. Baking is very precise in this way, try it again and keep me posted on the outcome.
These are the best rolls I have ever had I have been gluten-free and Paleo for at least eight years and this is by far the best thank you so much for the recipe will make all the time have tried many many recipes just didn’t like him this is absolutely perfect. Also made them in a muffin tin pan just perfect for sandwiches or hamburgers or sloppy Joe’s.
My substitutions were coconut flour instead of arrowroot and honey for maple syrup AND regular gluten free flour instead of almond flour….some almond flour but not all. I also used 3 large eggs instead of 4 medium ones. With saying all of that I had to put more liquid in..it was too dense. Coconut flour needs more liquid. The bread tastes great but it’s too dense and didn’the rIse enough. Did the maple syrup vs honey or lack of one egg have anything to do with that density? I also don’the like the sweet taste in bread. Don’t eat any sugar so I am probably super sensitive to that taste. Your thoughts on the density, not rising enough and 3 large eggs vs 4 medium ones, in terms of making the bread rise more? Also would like a harder seeded bread. Do u have a recipe for that? I like hard breads. The taste is very good but not for breakfast or sandwiches. Not for me at any rate. Any suggestions? Thanks for ur help!
Make it Paleo: Over 200 Grain Free Recipes For Any Occasion by Bill Staley and Hayley Mason. The book shows you how easy it is to take any dish and Make it Paleo! Adapted from Chinese, French, Mexican and classic American meals, the over 200 recipes are each accompanied by good photos and notes to ensure you recreate each dish with ease. Most recipes are ones that can be found in an ordinary cookbook. Butter and vinegar are also used, which I do not consider paleo. Published October 20, 2011.
The paleo diet (also nicknamed the caveman diet, primal diet, Stone Age diet, and hunter-gatherer diet) is hugely popular these days, and goes by one simple question: What would a caveman eat? Here, we explain what the paleo diet involves, its pros and cons, and, ultimately, what a modern person needs to know to decide whether or not to take the paleo diet plunge.
The almond bread toasts well! I enjoy it with avocado in the mornings or all sorts of toppings. I feel great after eating it and restaurants let me hand them the bag and they toast it for me or use it to make sandwiches! I am very happy I can eat a bread with no nightshades-potato starch, e.g., nor yeast. My arthritis is absent when I refrain from nightshades and fermented items. I eat gluten and dairy free due to autoimmune issues and have normal labs with these dietary changes. I eat from the garden and meat, but really like breads! I like ALL of Julian’s breads and there is zero competition out there! Thank you, Julian, for loving us enough to feed us!
Paleo Thin Bread® – Almond ( Paleo Bread ) (1 Net Carb) (3 Pack w/Free Shipping), is a great way to enjoy a healthy meal or snack with added flavor and health benefits. Paleo Bread – Almond is Gluten Free, Grain Free, Yeast Free, Soy Free, GMO Free, (7g Of Protein Per Slice), Low Carb and best of all delicious. Paleo Bread -Almond loaf contains six simple ingredients! *Nutritional Information Provided By Medallion Labs For Nutritional Accuracy **Freezes great for 12 Months** / Stay In Ketosis**”Paleo Breads Are Soft & Fluffy & Does NOT Crumble”