I am a little confused about beating the egg whites with a hand mixer. I used 12 large egg whites as the recipe says. However, I did not add cream of tartar as I have none. I have been beating these egg whites for almost 40 minutes with an electric hand mixer and I still have not yet come to the consistency as your photo shows for stiff egg whites. So my questions are, is this amount of time normal for beating the egg whites? And what amount of time would you recommend if this is not the normal amount of time?
Paleonutrition by Mark Q. Sutton, Kristin D. Sobolik, and Jill K. Gardner is the analysis of prehistoric human diets and the interpretation of dietary intake in relation to health and nutrition. This is a substantial text that combines background to paleonutrition, an extensive bibliography, a discussion on methods, and case studies. Published February 23, 2010.
I had to make some changes. I’m allergic to chicken eggs so I used duck eggs. I don’t use flaxseed; it’s an endocrine disruptor but I had hemp seed powder so I used that. I also have chia seed to grind so I will try that next time. Baking time was 10 minutes longer, maybe because of the duck eggs. Slices beautifully and is delicious! Thank you, Elana, for looking out for us Paleos!
Paleo Thin Bread® – Almond ( Paleo Bread ) (1 Net Carb) (3 Pack w/Free Shipping), is a great way to enjoy a healthy meal or snack with added flavor and health benefits. Paleo Bread – Almond is Gluten Free, Grain Free, Yeast Free, Soy Free, GMO Free, (7g Of Protein Per Slice), Low Carb and best of all delicious. Paleo Bread -Almond loaf contains six simple ingredients! *Nutritional Information Provided By Medallion Labs For Nutritional Accuracy **Freezes great for 12 Months** / Stay In Ketosis**”Paleo Breads Are Soft & Fluffy & Does NOT Crumble”

I didn’t measure my pan but when I baked this bread it was a bit flat also, so I cut the loaf in half, and then sliced each half into bread sized pieces. It worked perfectly for full sized pieces that looked like ‘normal’ bread. I cannot get over how easy and delicious this bread is. My sweet son can have no grains, and no honey….so I left out the honey and added 1 tsp of xylitol. So so good. And this morning when I toasted a piece for him, he thought I made a mistake and gave him ‘real’ bread!
There were some recipes I tried that were decent enough and definitely passable as bread-like concoctions, but nothing was stellar. Or even good enough to warrant making a second time (IMHO). And there were also a few loaves that were actually pretty bad in different ways – either the flavor and/or the texture was just off – that ended up only being fit for the garbage (definitely a sad thing). But that’s how we learn, right?
My son can’t have eggs, so I did MAJOR substitutions, and it still turned out yummy. We usually use flax for eggs, but since this recipe already calls for flax, I used 5 different eggs substitutes: 1/4 coconut yogurt, 1/3 cup applesauce, 1/4 cup vegetable oil (I used olive), 2 heaping tbsp potato starch, 2 heaping tbsp arrowroot powder. Perhaps because we couldn’t use the eggs, there wasn’t a hard crust, but again, it was still yummy. We have to make do in a no egg diet ;). I also didn’t have the correct size loaf pan, so I used two mini loaf pans and baked them for about 25 minutes. Hope someone sees this who has to eat an egg-free diet :).

Hi! Was wondering if I could substitute corn or coconut flour? They are the only ones that sit well with me and I’ve begun to develop a nut intolerance. I also can’t have vinegar, and am worried about arrowroot because I haven’t had it before. I’m having a hard time finding bread recipes that I can use and I’m looking to utilize a bread machine also. Hope this finds you well and thanks for your help and insight. Your page is beautiful. ♡


Lexi! I just made this recipe for the first time yesterday to eat alongside our burgers – and they were PERFECT. Great consistency, nice flavor and best of all – the rolls retained their shape and didn’t rip like most buns do while eating the burgers. My husband loved them! We plan on making these on the regular. Thanks so much for creating/sharing this!
The final benefit we’ll discuss is a balanced dietary alkaline load. While this concept sounds complex, it’s actually quite simple: after digestion, all foods present either a net acid or alkaline load to the kidneys. Meats, fish, grains, legumes, cheese, and salt all produce acids, while Paleo-approved fruits and vegetables yield alkalines. A lifetime of excessive dietary acid may promote bone and muscle loss, high blood pressure, an increased risk for kidney stones, and may aggravate asthma and exercise-induced asthma. The Paleo diet seeks to reduce the risk of chronic disease by emphasising a balanced alkaline load.

Eat low to moderate amounts of fruits and nuts. Try to eat mostly fruits low in sugar and high in antioxidants like berries as well as nuts high in omega-3, low in omega-6 and low in total polyunsaturated fat like macadamia nuts. Consider cutting off fruits and nuts altogether if you have an autoimmune disease, digestive problems or are trying to lose weight faster.
Hi Keith, hope I can help a little. Coconut flour is very dry and absorbs a LOT of moisture so it is most difficult to replace in recipes. I have had success increasing other flours and/or reducing liquid. Coconut oil can be replaced with ghee or olive oil, but the taste will change a bit. I use date sugar or honey (again, adjust liquid) in some recipes. It might just be easier for you to do a web search for coconut-free recipes!
If you’ve been laying off the magic 7 layer magic cookie bars this holiday season because of their layers of processed sugars and fats, I have some good news for you.  We can make these magical bars of goodness PALEO, VEGAN and CLEAN so you can treat yourself and still maintain your healthy eating goals!  How do we do it? To make my 7 layer bar recipe…
You don’t often equate coconuts as being savory, but there are a few things in play here that get this to work. The use of coconut flour replaces the typical wheat-based flour used in most store bought bread. The savory comes from a combination of flax meal, sea salt, and olive oil. Coconut flour provides the right texture and helps this taste like a bread, and is one of the more popular flours used in Paleo baking because it has more of a light and airy taste and feel to it. Since it is derived from coconuts no grains are harmed in the process.
I just want to send the biggest thanks to Paola and the team at Gnom-Gnom for creating these magical recipes!! Since finding this site, I’ve made this bread recipe (twice!!), the carrot cake cupcakes, salted caramel sauce, and no-churn vanilla ice cream and needless to say, they’ve all turned out incredibly successful. I have absolutely no complaints at all. I hardly ever repeat substitute keto bread recipes since I’ve never found one that has been satisfying enough but this. THIS recipe. It’s a complete game changer and has become a staple in my weekly prep and daily eating. The carrot cake cupcakes are delicious, tender and moist- unlike any of the other substitute recipes I’ve tried. And as for the ice cream and salted caramel sauce- I actually think I’ve gone to food heaven. It’s as good, if not better than the real deal. I don’t know how Paola came up with these recipes. She’s a true magician. I have so much admiration and adoration for her. Hoping that she keeps up all the amazing work and that Gnom-Gnom continues to thrive. Sending virtual hugs. x
You don’t often equate coconuts as being savory, but there are a few things in play here that get this to work. The use of coconut flour replaces the typical wheat-based flour used in most store bought bread. The savory comes from a combination of flax meal, sea salt, and olive oil. Coconut flour provides the right texture and helps this taste like a bread, and is one of the more popular flours used in Paleo baking because it has more of a light and airy taste and feel to it. Since it is derived from coconuts no grains are harmed in the process.
I am so happy to have found this delicious and easy recipe. I used a regular sized loaf pan and baked it about 5 minutes less time since the loaf is thinner. Also I think I will put a piece of parchment on the bottom of the pan next time as it stuck to the pan a little bit. I thought it had a kind of like a cornbread texture. It is so good though, I believe I will be eating some of this every day for the rest of my life. Can’t wait to try some of the suggested variations!
Liza, I haven’t tried this recipe using cashew flour, but if you’ve had success using a 1:1 substitution for almond flour making other bread-type recipes, I think it could work! I also haven’t tried this recipe using coconut milk, but other readers have and said it works well. Yes, please let us know how it goes if you try it with these substitutions!
Cordain explains that high intake of fruits and vegetables is one of best ways to reduce chances of cancer and heart disease. He notes that protein has twice the calorie burning effect of fat and carbs and is more satiating than both. He explains that starch, fats, sugars, and salts together cause us to keep eating. So if we limit our diet to fruits and vegetables and/or meat, we’ll stop eating when we’re full. And if you stop eating when you’re full, you’ll lose weight and won’t get fat. And as you lose weight, your cholesterol will improve (regardless of what you eat). This all makes sense and can’t really be disputed. If you want to lose weight, the Paleo diet will get you there and probably quickly. But Cordain’s hypothesis applied to long-term health falls short.
Fruits are not only delicious, but they’re also great for you. That said, fruits (even paleo-approved ones) contain large amounts of fructose which, while much better than HFCS (high-fructose corn syrup), is still sugar. If you’re looking to lose weight on the paleo diet, you’ll want to cut back on your fruit intake and focus more on the vegetables allowed on the paleo diet. However, feel free to have one to three servings of fruit a day. Check out this list of paleo diet fruits and see if you’re not hungry by the end! (We’ll admit, we’re partial to blackberries!)

I made this as written using the pan that Elana linked to and was a little disappointed with the height. A friend of mine said she makes the gluten free bread with a 4″x4″ pyrex pan because it gets taller and better for sandwiches, so i tried the Paleo bread again using her idea. It got taller, but the top looks like a volcano erupted. I’m not quite sure how to get a smoother top or what i did wrong for this to happen.
Made this bread last night to go with our homemade soup. We really liked it. I didn’t have greek yogurt so I used 1/4 cup whole milk yogurt and 1/4 cup sour cream. I also added a tiny bit of honey for sweetness. It turned out beautiful! Baked for 35 minutes. Have made many other gluten free breads and some were terrible and some just O.K. , but this is the best one we have tried. Great recipe! Can’t wait to try it toasted. Thanks so much!
In our keto bread recipe, we use a combination of coconut and almond flours so neither is overpowering. We also use a touch of psyllium husk powder to help achieve the right texture. A little bit of beef gelatin acts as a binder and adds bread-like “chew” to the final result. Our recipe only contains egg whites, which add structure and act as a natural leavening agent, but without the eggy flavor that the yolks would add.
I am so happy that I found your site! I have been trying for a couple years to find a good bread/roll recipe (I’m kind of picky) and this is the first one that I have absolutely loved. My kids love them too. I am going to order the molds you use but for now am making them in a muffin pan and they turn out great. So far I’ve used them with tuna salad and your sloppy joe recipe (which is also delicious! )
If you’ve been laying off the magic 7 layer magic cookie bars this holiday season because of their layers of processed sugars and fats, I have some good news for you.  We can make these magical bars of goodness PALEO, VEGAN and CLEAN so you can treat yourself and still maintain your healthy eating goals!  How do we do it? To make my 7 layer bar recipe…
Thank you so much! This was delicious, didn’t crumble and fall apart like most g.f. breads. I brought it to my Bible Study group, one gal is on the Paleo diet and I am gluten free, two gals can eat anything. They all loved it. It is so easy to make, again, thank you so much for posting. I’ve already shared the recipe with two of the gals in the group.
As I type I have my first loaf of Paleo Bread in the oven. I live in South Africa where we apparently don’t have any flax meal…so I imported some from your side of the world and can’t wait to taste the results. My daughter, who suffers with severe juvenile arthritis and for whom we all made the conversion to Paleo, and I made it together and experimented with your silver dollar pancakes for fun at the same time. Those were delicious and enjoyed with blueberries and a bit of honey.
Hands down, the absolute best low carb bread recipe ever!!! I made it last night and I am blown away!!! I’ve tried a lot of low carb bread recipes trying to find something close to the “carby” bread I once loved, and you have solved my dilemma. This bread is better than the carb-laden kind (in my opinion) and I am so happy to be able to enjoy toast, sandwiches and any other idea that comes to my mind for utilizing this bread. I can’t wait to make another batch because I didn’t leave this one in quite long enough, but I am certain of it’s potential! God bless you.
I made this yesterday. I made 1.5 times the recipe for a larger loaf pan and used apple butter (no sugar, just reduced apple) instead of yogurt or coconut butter. I had the same issue with the center being uncooked. Lesson learned that it needs to stay in longer but the pieces we cut off from around the center were very good. I was very impressed with this recipe. Thank you!

One question, when I released this bread out of the pan there was a very strong ammonia smell coming from the bread. After it cooled this ammonia smell was gone. I’m just curious what could cause that odor? Is it a reaction from the almond flour? I was just caught off guard when I bent over to get a whiff of the freshly baked loaf and it smelled of ammonia!


this looks amazing! i am low carb, so this will work for me as opposed to some of your other gluten free breads! i cant have arrowroot powder and other similar ingredients. that being said, i love ALL your recipes and even if they contain ingredients i cant have, they are usually easy to substitute or ‘play’ around with until i get it low carb friendly;) thankfully, you have done the work for me here;)thanks!!!!!
Thank you Elana for posting such a delishious bread recipe. I followed the recipe as originally posted, but I didn’t feel there was enough batter, so I made another batch and added it to the first. The only change was I added aprox. 1 tsp. of cream of tartar. I used unpasturized dark honey, but next time I will only use 1 TBS. instead of the 2 for when I double the recipe. I think 1 TBS. will be plenty enough. I also baked the loaf a little longer until it was browned because of it’s thickness. Out of the grain free breads I have experimented with in baking, this one is definately the best. The taste and texture completed my ham and cucumber sandwich.
Another possibility is that maybe your oven is not well calibrater (which is normal) and your bread needed to cook longer. I suggest next time you insert the stick in a few areas to ensure it’s done throughout. Also, it’s a good idea to purchase an oven thermometer to ensure the temperature is where you want it during baking. They cost less that $20, I got mine for less than $10.

How quickly I have gone back on my promise to stop talking about the weather, but seriously, with a heatwave like we’re having right now, how can anyone be expected to focus on anything else? And I don’t know about you, but these days turning on the oven feels like a mortal sin. If you live in a place where you can even consider turning on your oven right now, I envy you. But for the rest of us, short of starvation (or, at the very least, dessert withdrawal), the only solution is a no-bake treat. All of these paleo desserts fit the bill. 
Thanks for the reply Adriana. What I meant by a quick mix in the Vitamix was that I “Vitamixed” it one more time to be positive it was as fine as could be. I keep almonds frozen and I use them up over time to make milk, then dehydrate the pulp and then turn it into flour. I will have to think about buying the flour already made again…seems like I’d be going backwards in my slow but steady journey of making the most of my whole ingredients. I wonder if blanched flour would work better…I’ve read that the the only difference with the skins is the little brown specks that don’t bother me. I may try again at some point.

This was my first foray into paleo breadmaking (and eating). DELICIOUS! I had to leave the room or else I would have eaten the whole loaf. I’m experimenting with recipes to try and find a GF sandwich bread that my kids will like. I’m going to make this again but will either use the coconut cream or use sweetened yogurt or add honey to make it a little sweeter. I’m also thinking about making it in a tin can so I can cut it into round slices.
Trying to devise an ideal diet by studying contemporary hunter-gatherers is difficult because of the great disparities that exist; for example, the animal-derived calorie percentage ranges from 25% for the Gwi people of southern Africa to 99% for the Alaskan Nunamiut.[40] Descendants of populations with different diets have different genetic adaptations to those diets, such as the ability to digest sugars from starchy foods.[40] Modern hunter-gatherers tend to exercise considerably more than modern office workers, protecting them from heart disease and diabetes, though highly processed modern foods also contribute to diabetes when those populations move into cities.[40]
Hi Sonda, glad you like it! I use a free nutrition calculator on the website sparkrecipes.com, which generates the nutrition table. You just put in all your ingredients and number of portions and it does the rest of the work for you. I cannot guarantee whatever comes out is 100% accurate, it is thought to be a guide. If you need to rely on nutrition info for health reasons, you’d have to make your own calculations.
Nice and firm. Baked it on the recommended temp, added 6 or 7 minutes. Pressed the middle and it was great. I let it cool. What was nice about it was obviously it’s low carb bread…hurray for that, but it cut well. Got 18 slices easily about 1/2 inch thick without breakage. Most importantly, it wasn’t greasy, or almond tasting overload, just delicious.
Paloa, my dear woman! You need to be recognized as a saint! I just made this bread and holy smokes. It. Is. Awesome! I will make a few tweaks the next time I bake it – I baked it for high altitude (I’m at 5800 ft) but apparently my oven is on steroids – it was to hot and the top was over brown – I checked it about 20 min in and it was already dark. But, I have a plan for next time. When I pulled it out of the pan, a corner came off – which was great because I didn’t have to wait to try it! I’ve also tried your chocolate sour cream cupcakes and the cream cheese frosting this week – holy smokes they are delicious! I’m so glad I found you and can’t thank you enough for sharing your knowledge and recipes with all of us! Have a great week! –Rena
The Paleo Answer: 7 Days to Lose Weight, Feel Great, Stay Young by Loren Cordain. The author shows you how to supercharge the Paleo diet for optimal lifelong health and weight loss. Featuring a new prescriptive 7-day plan and surprising revelations from the author's original research, it's the most powerful Paleo guide yet. Published December 20, 2011.
I accidentally forgot mine when my “timer” didn’t remind me. I remembered it and pulled it out after it had been in the oven an extra 13 minutes. It was almost perfect. I also just whisked vigorously as my processor is missing since the last move. I will definitely make it again, but I will likely play with it a bit as I am hoping to find a few versions to make regularly to replace my family’s usual bread. Even our most finicky eater is loving these recipes so far. Thank you!
I’ve tried a few other paleo/grain free breads and this is by far the best. It tastes great but what’s amazing about this recipe is ITS SO EASY. Being able to throw all the ingredients in a mixer and not having to fuss with whipping and folding in egg whites, etc is a perk. I made two modifications and it turned out well. Slightly melted raw honey in place of maple syrup and I doubled the recipe because I like the loaf to be close to a standard size (obviously adds a quite longer bake time but worth it).
I am BLOWN away by this bread! I added up the protein and net carbs … umm … WOW. A huge bonus is that both kids – one of whom is crazy picky – AND my husband both love it!!!! They devoured the first loaf within a few hours. This will obviously be a huge staple in our house. It’s really a God-send. Our son, who is the picky eater, is mostly picky about proteins. He won’t eat any meat except for chicken, no eggs or dairy. We’ve gone gluten/casein free to see if it helps with his autism and as much as I totally wanted to eliminate bread, I finally just had to accept that he HAD to eat a peanut butter and honey sandwich at lunch. My cracker/veggie/peanut butter dip thing just wasn’t working. Not only will he EAT this bread – he wouldn’t eat the other gluten-free breads I was making – it is actually giving him the ONE thing he needs most – PROTEIN. Seriously, thank you, thank you, thank you!!!!!!!!!!!!!
There were some recipes I tried that were decent enough and definitely passable as bread-like concoctions, but nothing was stellar. Or even good enough to warrant making a second time (IMHO). And there were also a few loaves that were actually pretty bad in different ways – either the flavor and/or the texture was just off – that ended up only being fit for the garbage (definitely a sad thing). But that’s how we learn, right?

If dinner has no dessert, is it really a meal? Hell no! But when you’re following a Paleo diet, it can feel like there’s a real lack of dessert options. Don’t stress, sweet fiends, we’ve got you covered. Yes, certain foods aren’t part of the Paleo plate, but that doesn’t mean you’re entering a time without treats. We’ve rounded up some of the best Paleo-friendly desserts to satisfy your prehistoric sweet tooth. So stock up on staples like almond and coconut flours and coconut oil because these desserts are so tasty, you'll want to eat at least one daily.
While there is wide variability in the way the paleo diet is interpreted,[6] the diet typically includes vegetables, fruits, nuts, roots, and meat and typically excludes foods such as dairy products, grains, sugar, legumes, processed oils, salt, alcohol or coffee.[1][additional citation(s) needed] The diet is based on avoiding not just processed foods, but rather the foods that humans began eating after the Neolithic Revolution when humans transitioned from hunter-gatherer lifestyles to settled agriculture.[3] The ideas behind the diet can be traced to Walter Voegtlin,[7] and were popularized in the best-selling books of Loren Cordain.[8]
I have recently discovered your website and I’m so pleased that I did. There is so much content there. It’s the bread I’m particularly interested in at this point since I have not had any bread for about two and a half years so I went straight there. I tried your world famous paleo bread and I must say it was very nice. However it does not look like your bread in that mine was much darker and much denser. I tried to find a comment where you addressed this issue but I only got as far as some comments regarding the height of the bread. You stated that the tin size was most likely incorrect. I’m sure my tin as a bit on the big side but when I look at the pic of your bread I can see yours is a much lighter bread than mine and also much lighter in colour.

New here, but loving your recipees so far (totally game changer for my diet and life)! I’ve tried this bread a few times now, but am struggling with it a little bit and was hoping that you could help me try to figure out what to try next. The taste is fantastic, but I’m having trouble with the rise. My yeast is bubbling and I’ve had it proving on my oven (which is pretty hot! –too hot?). The structure inside looks like there were air bubbles, but they got knocked out or something (sort of squished), but your picture looks incredible so I’m hoping that I can change something. The taste seems a little dense and chewy so far. I’m very new to baking, so it might also be a bake problem. I’m in Chicago.

I just made the bread above and sadly for me LOLOl it was only 2′ high I am wondering if that is because i mixed it in my Mixmaster not a food processor it tastes yummy but I’m not sure why it didn’t rise higher. the batter was very thick when I put it in the loaf tin Oh well I wil have to try it again LOLOl we will eat it fast as it tastes soooo good


If you’ve been laying off the magic 7 layer magic cookie bars this holiday season because of their layers of processed sugars and fats, I have some good news for you.  We can make these magical bars of goodness PALEO, VEGAN and CLEAN so you can treat yourself and still maintain your healthy eating goals!  How do we do it? To make my 7 layer bar recipe…
A diet high in phytic acid, which can be found in whole grains (it's in the bran) and beans like soy, is very detrimental for mineral absorption. Phytic acid strongly binds to minerals like calcium, iron, zinc and magnesium to form insoluble salts, phytates, which precipitate from the body and are not absorbed. Staffan Lindeberg has written a summary on phytic acid.
According to the CDC, cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death in the United States. Interestingly however, our Paleolithic ancestors and contemporarily studied hunter-gatherers showed virtually no heart attack or stroke while eating ancestral diets. The references below will explore these facts to better help you understand the heart-healthy benefits of a Paleo diet.
Sometimes the terms almond flour and almond meal are used interchangeably. Some people refer to almond flour if it’s made from blanched almonds and is finely ground, and some people refer to almond meal when the almonds are coarsely ground and made from almonds with the skin on. The majority of cookbooks, chefs, and commercial brands don’t differentiate between the two terms, and there are currently no reliable standards for naming the product flour or meal. The best almond flour for baking in my opinion is one that has been ground very fine. But even those may give you different results because all almonds are different. Taste is different and some are oilier. After doing some tests, I found the best brands for baking are by Honeyville, Welbees and Nuts(.com). Hope this helps.
Thank you so much for your recipe. This is the best keto bread recipe I have come across. There is only one suggestion it’s better to use medium size 8X4 inch pan to get perfect size slices. There is one question., can we replace coconut flour with almond flour completely? If yes what is the quantity for almond flour in this case? Thank you once again.
My son can’t have eggs, so I did MAJOR substitutions, and it still turned out yummy. We usually use flax for eggs, but since this recipe already calls for flax, I used 5 different eggs substitutes: 1/4 coconut yogurt, 1/3 cup applesauce, 1/4 cup vegetable oil (I used olive), 2 heaping tbsp potato starch, 2 heaping tbsp arrowroot powder. Perhaps because we couldn’t use the eggs, there wasn’t a hard crust, but again, it was still yummy. We have to make do in a no egg diet ;). I also didn’t have the correct size loaf pan, so I used two mini loaf pans and baked them for about 25 minutes. Hope someone sees this who has to eat an egg-free diet :).
Ostensibly, Grok is "a rather typical hunter–gatherer" living before the dawn of agriculture—an "official primal prototype." He is the poster-persona for fitness author and blogger Mark Sisson's "Primal Blueprint"—a set of guidelines that "allows you to control how your genes express themselves in order to build the strongest, leanest, healthiest body possible, taking clues from evolutionary biology (that's the primal part)." These guidelines incorporate many principles of what is more commonly known as the Paleolithic, or caveman, diet, which started to whet people's appetites as early as the 1960s and is available in many different flavors today.

NeanderThin: Eat Like a Caveman to Achieve a Lean, Strong, Healthy Body (Hardcover) by Ray Audette, with Troy Gilchrist, was one of the early paleo diet authors. His home page NeanderThin [now restored from archive.org] has a diet based on the ideas of paleolithic nutrition. The diet can be followed as a low-carb, moderate or high carb diet, depending upon whether and how much fruit is used. You can read up through page 19 of the book at Google Books. The original press release from 1999. [The webmaster has an extra copy with the author's signature for sale. It has the original lime-purple cover. Pristine new condition. $60 (shipping included). Paypal only. Use e-mail link at page bottom.]
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