I forgot to say I used half al one flour and half sunflower seed flour.. I double the batch and I found if I let it sit for about 25 min, then put it in the oven it gets thicker as it sits and I still have to bake it for an hour. The tast is great. The next time I’m buying Honeyville flour and making it exactly like your recipe says. I’m just worried about mixing it to much. Mine is very dense and heavy. But yummy.
Made this tonight, and it came out delicious!! I subbed in grapeseed oil for the coconut oil, and used ground chia seed instead of the flax, because they are what I had on hand, and it is wonderful. Nice “whole grain” texture and nutty taste, so yummy just spread with good butter. Will definitely be making this again! I’m mostly Paleo, and LOVE your almond flour and coconut flour recipes, delicious and grain free. Thank you so much.
In any case, I was finally able to have a little sample of bread and butter which was thrilling and so yummy. I originally intended to make turkey sandwiches with the loaf, but may end up repurposing it. It would make some great croutons for the Gnom-Gnom stuffing recipe. But I can also see some bruschetta in my near future. By cutting the loaf horizontally, I think I can still manage to get at least one turkey sandwich out of it this week. That’s if I don’t keep sneaking little slices for bread and butter 😉

People who eat Paleo are also missing out on fiber, vitamins and minerals that come from a diet that includes healthy grains and dairy products. Some nutrients that someone on a Paleo diet may be lacking are iron, zinc calcium, folate, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B12 and phosphorus. The UK Association of Dieticians ranked the Paleo Diet as one of the five worst celebrity diets to avoid in 2015 because cutting foods, without a good substitution, can compromise good health.

A few days ago I was delighted to learn that Dr. Oz was going to again feature The Paleo Diet on his nationally syndicated television show along with one of my co-authors, Nell Stephenson, of The Paleo Diet Cookbook. I tuned into the Dr. Oz show and was happy about most of what I saw except for Chris Kresser, expounding upon the health virtues of a food group, beans and legumes, that definitely are not Paleo. Please read the following...
Hi Anita, I double checked my carton egg whites. 3/4 cup of egg whites is equivalent to 4 large whole eggs, not 4 large egg whites. Mine has a chart for converting whole eggs, and the conversion for egg whites only is below the chart. It says 2 tablespoons of liquid egg whites are equivalent to the egg white of 1 whole egg. So, 12 large egg whites would be 24 tablespoons, or 1 1/2 cups as written in the recipe. Hope this helps!
This bread is so so good! I love that it doesn’t have Cassava flour, which upsets my stomach a little. It was so easy and the recipe is also pretty forgiving. I had a crazy two year old (who I thought would like to “help”) and an infant while I was making this and ended up spilling some of the flours and I didn’t measure very accurately and it still came out amazing! Thank you for the recipe!

I just found this recipe and I notice that the recipes are very similar: this one has the addition of a little coconut flour, half the salt and half the vinegar, but maintains the baking soda quantity. How does the the texture of this bread compare to your low carb corn bread? I’m very curious about what went into the decisions that differentiate the two breads.
In the long term, you have to be sure you’re getting calcium and other nutrients you’re missing by not having dairy products and certain grains. Some paleo-approved foods, such as salmon and spinach, contain calcium, so you have to be sure you’re including them in your diet. It would be a good idea to check with a registered dietitian, too, to make sure you’re meeting your calcium and other nutrient needs.

Both kids and adults will enjoy stretching the honey into taffy, and the longer you stretch the honey, the easier and more pliable the taffy becomes. To avoid a sticky situation, make sure any surface you set the taffy on is thinly coated with cooking spray. You can also wear latex gloves (coated with canola oil) to make the pulling a little easier.
Thank you – thank you – thank you!!! I LOVE this bread. I followed the recipe exactly and did have to bake an extra 10 minutes but that was the only change – and I use the small disposable aluminum bread pan (bread pops right out) This bread is wonderful…not only easy to slice but easy to slice thin and the slices hold up great in a sandwich (no matter what the filling is) and it tastes great. This is my new best bread. I told my husband that he would probably even like it but we’ll never know since it is gluten free :^)
Some Paleo dieters emphasize that they never believed in one true caveman lifestyle or diet and that—in the fashion of Sisson's Blueprint—they use our evolutionary past to form guidelines, not scripture. That strategy seems reasonably solid at first, but quickly disintegrates. Even though researchers know enough to make some generalizations about human diets in the Paleolithic with reasonable certainty, the details remain murky. Exactly what proportions of meat and vegetables did different hominid species eat in the Paleolithic? It's not clear. Just how far back were our ancestors eating grains and dairy? Perhaps far earlier than we initially thought. What we can say for certain is that in the Paleolithic, the human diet varied immensely by geography, season and opportunity. "We now know that humans have evolved not to subsist on a single, Paleolithic diet but to be flexible eaters, an insight that has important implications for the current debate over what people today should eat in order to be healthy," anthropologist William Leonard of Northwestern University wrote in Scientific American in 2002.
Weigh your ingredients. This will forever be a staple recommendation for any sort of gluten free baking here at gnom-gnom. As aside from leading to less dirty dishes, it will ensure consistent results time and time again. Remember that gluten free (and particularly keto) baking is notoriously finicky, and measuring by cups is anything but accurate. And if you don’t own a baking scale, measure with cups by dropping the ingredients onto them rather than scooping them out (which often leads to overpacking).
This is such an excellent versatile recipe and definitely my favorite gluten-free bread recipe. I find that I’m perfectly satisfied using almond meal that of almond flour. And it has adapted well to any other kind of nut or seed meal I have tried so far. Last week I used all pecan meal is my favorite today taste wise. I also often mix half of another nut meal with half almond meal. Second favorite was half almond meal with half sunflower seed meal the taste was delicious. However the sunflower seed meal did turn green like I did read. . . Morning I may Kallof with all walnut meal and I’m sure it will turn out cause of all the work you did in creating this recipe. Also I never use a food processor I mix it all by hand and it still turns out.
This is the best gluten free bread recipe I’ve tried! So glad I found this. It’s not crumbly, very bread-like, just a bit dense. I loosely followed the recipe and changed a few things. I omitted the maple syrup to make it whole30. I didn’t have arrowroot so I subbed tapioca starch per some of the comments and added some chia seeds as well. Since there was so much coconut oil in it, I plan on experimenting and using olive oil so it doesn’t have too much of a coconut taste. My husband didn’t really notice it though. He is the gluten free one and he’s very picky about his bread, but this got his approval! I added some almonds on top and garlic and Italian herb seasoning to give it a flavor boost. I had trouble with this in the blender, maybe because I don’t have a very good one, so I will just use a mixing bowl next time. Thank you for sharing! I will be telling my friends about this!
I made this tonight and used 1.5 cups almond flour, 1/2 cup tapioca starch, subbed chia meal for flax meal, subbed avocado oil for coconut oil, and added 1.5 T caraway seeds to give it a bit of a “rye bread taste”. We had it with corned beef tonight and it was very good. I did two mini loafs which took the same amount of cooking time. My husband and older son are usually very picky about paleo breads and they both gave it a thumbs up… I think because they both like the taste of caraway. Thanks for the recipe!
I just made this and it tastes like brushing my teeth with baking soda! Thank goodness I tasted the batter before it went into the oven. I added an extra 1 1/2 tablespoons of honey, then 1 teaspoon of vanilla to try to cut the bakingsoda flavor. I didn’t know what else to do- I didn’t want a sweet loaf but it was too astringent to eat. I ended up with a neutral (not sweet) tasting loaf that still tasted soda-ish. Very metallic tasting.
Thank you so much for this recipe. I’ve made this recipe and your simple bread recipe and both came out perfect right from the start. I did follow the recipes EXACTLY, except for the fact that I don’t have a food processor so I had to “pulse” by hand which led me to believe that I had to stir in ingredients in large minimal swoops being careful not to over mix. Wondering if that is what other people had done when they’ve made this recipe without a food processor? As I said, it came out perfectly. just wondering if I was just lucky.
For instance, the fat allowance of the diet may be problematic. “My biggest hang-up with the paleo diet is all of the saturated fats it promotes with all of the meats,” explains Holley, noting that you could look for a locally sourced meat, whose origin and method of raising you're aware of, as a healthier option. Saturated fat from meat has been linked with an increased risk of early death. (9)
I have done this many times in many different ways. I used a regular size muffins pan and make dinner rolls for the holidays. English muffins rings for burger size buns, and whoopee pie pans for slider size buns. I use a standard size ice cream scoop for the rolls and slider buns (1 level scoop) and 2 scoops for the larger burger buns. Usually bake rolls and sliders for 20-25 minutes and for the bigger buns, start checking them at 25-30 minutes. Hope this encourages you to experiment,

As for the preface to it, could you be more snarky? People are curious and not every place in the world has Celtic sea salt or coconut flour easily accessible. Given that you try every minute substitution, it makes me wonder if you tried Celtic sea salt vs. Gaelic sea salt. Geez, woman, lighten up and realize that people are just tapping into your wisdom. Who knows? Maybe you tried the substitution they were asking about and you can tell them how it worked out.


Of course Wikipedia has a page on the Paleolithic Diet. It is quite thorough. It also isn't clear about the lean/fatty meat debate between the followers of Loren Cordain and a slew of others, and pushes lean meat. It is weak on the variations of the diet. Then it restricts fermented beverages. Even butterflies eat fermented fruit. Why wouldn't our paleo ancestors also?
hi, I’m trying paleo and loving it! Especially this bread . Omgoodness my whole family tried it and love it! So thank you. My question is , I’m trying to do proper food combining also. Meat with veg or carb with veg. So, is this bread considered a carb and not to be combined with meat ? ( doing proper food combining). Just wondering because it has no white flour. I know paleo doesn’t mean calorie free and fat free, but …??

This was delicious! I cooked it in a glass pan. Because of the size of my pan it did not come out as high as in the picture. It totally didn’t matter. Also when I took it out of the oven after 30 minutes the middle still seemed raw after testing it with a knife. I popped it back in the oven for about eight minutes. The bread reminds me of bran muffins, just in bread form. Even my four-year-old loves it! I highly recommend it because of the taste and how quick and easy it was to make.


As paleo guru Robb Wolf puts it, think of a 100-yard football field. The first 99.5 yards are how long Homo-Sapiens spent as hunter-gatherers. As they became REALLY good at hunting and gathering our bodies adapted to that lifestyle over thousands of years. That last half-yard represents our species after the agricultural revolution, where our diet has shifted (but our genetics haven’t).
mix the wet ingredients beating til well mixed. combine and pur into a mug sprayed with pam or greased with coconut oil. bake in the microwave for 1-2 minutes til a toothpick comes out clean. This recipe is very similar to a one minute muffin but has salt, applesauce and coconut oil added for moistness. if you want it firmer, leave out the coconut oil since the apple sauce is meant to be a draw for you son. or cut back on the apple sauce. as created the recipe will be a moist muffin which can be sliced cross wise into rounds and topped with your choice of toppings. to make a sandwich you might have to make it firmer or cool it in the fridge to make the slices thinner. this recipe will also make about three 4 inch pancakes. if fried in coconut oil.
Cordain explains that high intake of fruits and vegetables is one of best ways to reduce chances of cancer and heart disease. He notes that protein has twice the calorie burning effect of fat and carbs and is more satiating than both. He explains that starch, fats, sugars, and salts together cause us to keep eating. So if we limit our diet to fruits and vegetables and/or meat, we’ll stop eating when we’re full. And if you stop eating when you’re full, you’ll lose weight and won’t get fat. And as you lose weight, your cholesterol will improve (regardless of what you eat). This all makes sense and can’t really be disputed. If you want to lose weight, the Paleo diet will get you there and probably quickly. But Cordain’s hypothesis applied to long-term health falls short.
The Paleo diet, also referred to as the caveman or Stone-Age diet, includes lean meats, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds. Proponents of the diet emphasize choosing low-glycemic fruits and vegetables. There is debate about several aspects of the Paleo diet: what foods actually existed at the time, the variation in diets depending on region (e.g., tropical vs. Arctic), how modern-day fruits and vegetables bear little resemblance to prehistoric wild versions, and disagreement among Paleo diet enthusiasts on what is included/excluded from the diet. Because of these differences, there is not one “true” Paleo diet.
Cordain explains that high intake of fruits and vegetables is one of best ways to reduce chances of cancer and heart disease. He notes that protein has twice the calorie burning effect of fat and carbs and is more satiating than both. He explains that starch, fats, sugars, and salts together cause us to keep eating. So if we limit our diet to fruits and vegetables and/or meat, we’ll stop eating when we’re full. And if you stop eating when you’re full, you’ll lose weight and won’t get fat. And as you lose weight, your cholesterol will improve (regardless of what you eat). This all makes sense and can’t really be disputed. If you want to lose weight, the Paleo diet will get you there and probably quickly. But Cordain’s hypothesis applied to long-term health falls short.
I have all the seeds but sesame seeds. I just have a small jar of those for using on top of things. Which of the other seeds could I use instead? Or, maybe chia seeds in a smaller amount? I also have a 3 seed mix with chia, flax and hemp. It really looks great! I haven’t had a lot of success with other keto, low carb breads. Want to give this a try.

“All plants contain chlorogenic acid, mostly in the stems and leaves, but sunflowers also have it in the seeds. A spokeswoman for Red River Commodities says that SunButter does indeed turn cookies and other baked products green as they cool. The solution, she says, is to reduce the amount of baking soda or baking powder in your recipe by almost half, which balances the acidity of the ingredients and keeps them from changing color. Whether your cookies will rise adequately with half the leaven is a good question, but she says some people who have gotten in touch with the company say they don’t notice any difference. Adding a bit of lemon juice to your dough or batter can also help maintain expected colors. ”


I just came across this recipe as I am venturing into the Paleo world, as well as looking for recipes for my daughter who has really bad eczema and is off dairy, eggs (whites), wheat and soy. Do you think an egg replacer would work OK in this recipe? I’ll probably give it a try with the replacer I got from Whole Foods, but was wondering if anyone had already tried this recipe without eggs? I don’t know if ghee will work for her if she has to be dairy-free. Would coconut oil work the same? Thanks for any help/input! 🙂

I didn’t have the chai seeds or pumpkin seeds so I used ground flax seeds, extra sesame seeds and sliced almonds. I know flax absorbs moisture so I added about a 1/4 cup of water to the mix. OMG, I LOVE this bread. We have a local German baker who makes a multi-grain & seed bread that has always been my favorite and sells out first at our weekly farmers market. My bread tasted exactly the same. I’ve been doing keto since October and miss an occasional sandwich or toast. No more! THANK YOU for this recipe.
This is the best grain-free bread recipe I have ever tried. I didn’t have the loaf pan so I used one of my small casserole dishes and it came out square and a little darker around the edges. I used 1 1/2oz. of coconut oil and mixed it with 1/2oz. of melted butter and it came out really moist. It also came out dark like whole wheat bread, so I am assuming that I used just a little too much flax meal. I love you for taking the time to perfect this!!! I’m thinking of making a spice bread next time. Let you know if it works!!
I’ve made the Paleo Almond Bread recipe twice now and it was delicous, but I was wondering how to make it rise more. I changed the 1-1/2 tsps. baking soda to 1 tsp. baking soda and 1/2 tsp. baking powder. Instead of adding the 5 eggs at once I added 4 plus the egg yolk of the fifth egg. I beat the leftover egg white until frothy and folded it in at the end. It worked for me! Turned out delicious!
These paleo 7 layer bars make the PERFECT gift for your friends and family since they look amazing and can easily be packaged.  It now makes so much sense why I used to see these magical 7 layer bars everywhere during the holidays.  Plus, they’re easy to make and, now that we can make them vegan, paleo, and even clean eating, you can share with almost anyone!
Jazzmin, you are correct and the active cultures in the yogurt will not survive during baking. However, the reason why I mentioned those facts about yogurt on my post is because a lot of people following a paleo diet simply won’t eat dairy because at one point dairy was classified as “not paleo”. There are so many amazing health benefits from eating fermented foods and raw, organic dairy from pasture raised animals that I feel it is important to educate people.
Since your loaf pan isn’t all that much larger, I would first just alter the cook time. This bread will probably cook a bit quicker in a slightly larger pan, so I would recommend checking it about 5 minutes sooner. However, the loaf may not rise as high as it would in a smaller pan; if you’re looking for a higher rise to your bread I would try it with 1.5 times the ingredients and an increased cook time. Please let me know how it goes if you give it a try!

This is the third time I have made this bread. The first time I followed you directions and discovered the middle wasn’t quite baked all the way through. So I read some of the comments and tried it again. The second time I kept the oven temp the same and cut down on the butter and baked it for about 40-45 minutes. It turned out fine then. However it doesn’t that size of a loaf doesn’t last long in our house. So today I made it again and increased the recipe by half. I had bought a 12″ x 4.5″ x 3 ” bread loaf pan. I used 7 tbsp of Kerry Gold butter instead of 9 tbsp. Otherwise the rest was the same. I baked it at 355 degrees for 1 hour. It turned out perfectly. I couldn’t wait to let it cool too much. I love warm bread and just had to have a couple of slices. Btw- the organic almond flour I used was from our local grocery store health market section.


My 16 month old son loves the bread. He prefers it over the bakery italian bread(full of gluten and yeast) that we normally get him. Plus our dog is allergic to grains, so now I don’t have to worry about our son sharing his bread with her. As for me, I’m allergic to yeast and I’ve wanted to reduce gluten in my diet. Finding gluten and yeast free bread is nearly impossible.

Thank you so much for this recipe! I’ve made it several times and I love it for myself. I have tried many versions: coconut oil, ghee, butter, coconut cream, refrigerated coconut milk from a can, shaken (after a couple of days in the fridge) and full fat yogurt. I always beat my eggs for 2-3 minutes (by hand) until very frothy before adding the wet ingredients then beat them again after incorporating wet ingredients to get them thick. Although I like them all, I have had the best results for rising (and actual ‘bread-like’ texture and loft) from coconut oil and yogurt. My husband eats gluten-free but not paleo so when his favourite GF bread was out at the store he was stuck (he’s a ‘must eat sandwich for lunch’ guy and we’ve tried all the GF varieties in our store, some of them complete rocks!). I offered to make him a loaf and he accepted (he’s had this loaf before but felt it’s texture was more like a banana bread or zucchini bread than sandwich material). I got rave reviews from him today about the bread for his sandwich (made with coconut oil and yogurt). Total convert!!
This came out better than I expected it to actually. I did not have coconut flour so I added an extra 1/4c of almond meal. It was a tad bland but other than that a nice bread. I think the coconut flour would add to its flavor and sweetness. I will try again and add a banana just to give it a little more flavor. the pan I used was a regular loaf pan and it was a bit thin but otherwise a nice bread. My daughter enjoyed with peanutbutter and banana mashed together and I had it with her egg salad.
Take 30 days and give it a shot – cut out the grains and dairy, start eating more vegetables and fruits, eat more humanely raised and non-grain fed meat, cut out the liquid calories and sugar, and see how you feel after the month is up. If you’re analytical and want numbers to use in your final verdict, get your blood work done at the beginning and end of the month.
Eat WELL Feel GOOD: Practical Paleo Living by Diane Frampton has over 200 recipes that makes paleo eating simple, delicious, and ultimately, intuitive. So they claim. There are only a few reviews at Amazon. They all like the book, but their lack of details makes it appear that they are not truly independent reviews. The recipes have a Crossfit appeal to them. Chef Rachel Albert has made some of the recipes and posted here [archive.org].
I’ve made the Paleo Almond Bread recipe twice now and it was delicous, but I was wondering how to make it rise more. I changed the 1-1/2 tsps. baking soda to 1 tsp. baking soda and 1/2 tsp. baking powder. Instead of adding the 5 eggs at once I added 4 plus the egg yolk of the fifth egg. I beat the leftover egg white until frothy and folded it in at the end. It worked for me! Turned out delicious!
Eat WELL Feel GOOD: Practical Paleo Living by Diane Frampton has over 200 recipes that makes paleo eating simple, delicious, and ultimately, intuitive. So they claim. There are only a few reviews at Amazon. They all like the book, but their lack of details makes it appear that they are not truly independent reviews. The recipes have a Crossfit appeal to them. Chef Rachel Albert has made some of the recipes and posted here [archive.org].
These looked amazing, so I made them. We are GF in this house and these are perfect for us. My 11 & 7 yo boys asked for more. That never happens with GF products. This is the first recipe that I have made at home that is easy and taste great. Thank you so much for posting! Just an FYI – Nutiva makes a organic, non gmo blend of red palm and coconut oils shortening. That is what I used and they came out awesome.

The contents of this website are for educational purposes and are not intended to offer personal medical advice. You should seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website. The Nutrition Source does not recommend or endorse any products.
When eating Paleo you may find that you end up using vegan recipes a lot. This is not surprising because vegan cooking entails cutting out a lot of junk and only using wholesome sources. Of course you’ll be ruining the vegan-ness of it with the meat you’ll be having with it, but for side items like bread it’s totally OK to borrow a page from the vegan notebook. Here we have a bread that is both Paleo and vegan approved, and uses a bit of applesauce to give it a unique flavor. One thing to remember is that vegan cheese substitutes that you can find at the store will typically be Paleo friendly and actually taste pretty good.

Hi Howard, You’re right that this bread doesn’t rise much – the volume comes mostly from whipping the egg whites. If the whites fell too much, the bread might not be tall enough. But even if they didn’t, it might still be shorter than some other tall bread loaves. Feel free to multiply the recipe by 1.5 if you prefer a taller loaf. I’m glad you liked the flavor and texture!
If you’ve ever considered (or tried) the Paleo diet, your first thought was probably, “ugh, another one with no bread?!” We feel you, it’s a tough moment when you hear your beloved carbs must go. ICYMI, the Paleo diet cuts out grains and legumes in favor of a protein- and veggie-rich diet. Sure, Wonder Bread wasn’t part of a caveman’s diet, but that doesn’t mean modern-day humans haven’t found a way around the rules.
Hi everyone, I made this bread and it smelled AMAZING baking, but as soon as I cut into it, I got The Smell. It’s a bit like ammonia, but even more, to me, it smells EXACTLY like Nickelodeon Gak (anyone else remember that from the 90s?). I can sortof taste it as well. It’s quite disappointing after using all the almond flour and eggs, but it’s just not edible to me.
Sometimes nothing but a giant cookie will do. There’s no need to turn on the oven or share when it comes to this Paleo dessert. Coconut and almond flours bring the fiber, while a scoop of protein powder and your favorite nut butter add a whole lot of (you guessed it!) protein. Add in your favorite cookie mix-ins, like nuts or dairy-free chocolate chips, for a cookie your body will thank you for eating.

By far my favorite bread recipe! It turned out golden brown with a great flavor! Super easy and basic ingredients so you don’t have to run to the supermarket before making it. I asked my husband (not paleo or gluten free) to taste it and he thought it was good. That’s quite a compliment because he dislikes most gluten free/paleo things. Just a note, I’m at 9300 feet above sea level and it still raised and turned out delicious!


The Paleo diet has become more and more popular over the years, mimicking our ancient ancestors’ most basic diet of vegetables, meats, fruits, and nuts. The Paleo approach is to stay low in the mainstream processed foods that have filled our grocery store shelves and stick to natural food that’s free of additives. The hardest time to avoid these? Dessert! With these Paleo desserts, you get to avoid the added sugars, get full faster, and typically take in fewer carbohydrates.


Eat low to moderate amounts of fruits and nuts. Try to eat mostly fruits low in sugar and high in antioxidants like berries as well as nuts high in omega-3, low in omega-6 and low in total polyunsaturated fat like macadamia nuts. Consider cutting off fruits and nuts altogether if you have an autoimmune disease, digestive problems or are trying to lose weight faster.
I tried this recipe and it is not at all easy to incorporate 1/2 the egg whites in the food processor. When attempting to pulse just 2-3 times, only part of the egg whites incorporated, leaving 1/2 the whipped egg whites still sitting at the top of the mixture. I then had to use a spatula to force it down and pulsed 3 more times and ended up with a heavy batter because the egg whites completely fell. Then trying to fold the mixture into the rest of the egg whites was like trying to fold in cookie dough. The result was a loaf of baked eggs whites that had clumps of batter in the middle.
Hi Solange, if you use the recommended size baking pan, the bread will be the proper height. If you use a pan that is bigger than the one I used, your bread will rise, but it won’t fill the pan to the right height. Here’s an example that might help –if you place 1/2 cup of water in a 1/2 measuring cup it will be 100% full to the top of the cup. If you put the same 1/2 cup of water in a 1 cup measuring cup it will only fill it 50% and will only be 1/2 full in height. That’s why a loaf pan that is too large doesn’t work for this recipe when it comes to the height of the loaf :-) 
×