Evolution of the Human Diet: The Known, the Unknown, and the Unknowable by Peter S. Ungar. Diet is key to understanding the ecology and evolution of our distant ancestors and their kin, the early hominins. A study of the range of foods eaten by our progenitors underscores just how unhealthy many of our diets are today. This volume brings together authorities from disparate fields to offer new insights into the diets of our ancestors. Paleontologists, archaeologists, primatologists, nutritionists and other researchers all contribute pieces to the puzzle. The book has four sections: Reconstructed diets based on hominin fossils--tooth size, shape, structure, wear, and chemistry, mandibular biomechanics. Archaeological evidence of subsistence--stone tools and modified bones. Models of early hominin diets based on the diets of living primates--both human and non-human, paleoecology, and energetics. Nutritional analyses and their implications for evolutionary medicine.
The Stone Age Diet: Based on in-depth studies of human ecology and the diet of man by Walter L. Voegtlin. This was self-published back in 1975. Only a couple hundred copies were printed and distributed to friends and relatives. No one knew the book existed until some years later. In no way is he the father of the paleo diet. It is impossible to purchase. Apparently his descendents are planning a reprint, though the book is poorly written and not based upon factual anthropological information that even was available then. We have put up his Functional and Structural Comparison of Man's Digestive Tract with that of a Dog and Sheep. And a PDF can be found here.
Combining higher protein intake and fresh vegetables leads to another major benefit: blood sugar stabilization. Between 35 and 45 percent of the average Paleo diet is comprised of non-starchy fresh fruits and vegetables that won’t spike blood sugar levels, making it an optimal diet for diabetes prevention. This is because nearly all of these foods have low glycemic indices that are slowly digested and absorbed by the body.

Here is a way to keep Paleo fun by making a batch of Paleo pretzels. It gets boring sometimes eating a certain way, and adding novelty treats like this really makes it seem like you’re not on a diet at all. Half the fun is making these, as you don’t have to stick to the conventional pretzel shape, and can wind them into any design you wish. The other half is eating them, and there’s no worries here, since all of the ingredients conform to the parameters set by the Paleo OK foods list, a combination of coconut flour and almond flour.
Hi, Kaylie. It’s yummy! I just made the bread and ate 4(!) slices before slicing and freezing the rest. I followed the recipe exactly, using the same ingredients, measurements, temp. and baking time. I was surprised by the size of the finished loaf. It measured 3 7/8″ wide by 2″ high. I can’t imagine making a sandwich with slices that size! That said, it tastes great, and has a very good texture. At 35 minutes, I used a toothpick to see if it was baked through. The toothpick came out clean, but on slicing it, I think I’ll give it a few more minutes when I make it again. Thanks for the recipe.
I was told by someone.I offered these to that they remknded her of a “sweet hawaiin roll”(i made them in square brownie compartment pans) so i played with recipe and used a coarser fround almond meal and added aome ground flax seed for.a heartier, “grainier”texture. I also replaced the tapioca with arrowroot for less.sweetness and used avocado oil in place of coconut oil. The result? An amazing “multigrain” knockoff!
Coconut Flour: As Lexi pointed out Coconut Flour is not a 1:1 ratio. Coconut flour absorbs a LOT of liquid, so you have to either combine it with other flours in light quantaties, or use 6 eggs for every 1/2 cup of flour. Yes, I said 6 eggs with every ONE HALF cup of coconut flour. You can also use various liquids. Either way, it needs to have the same consistency as it would if you used the almond flour, it should be thin like pancake. If not it will out very dense.
Today I accidentally used besan (chickpea or garbanzo flour) and again, it came out great. I had forgotten that the almond flour was in the fridge and not the cabinet. I was wondering what was going on when the dough was much more sticky, was slightly darker, and smelled differently. I realized my mistake, cooked it anyway, and now have an acceptable substitute for almond flour. I think I like the almond better, but will enjoy this loaf anyway.
Hands down, the absolute best low carb bread recipe ever!!! I made it last night and I am blown away!!! I’ve tried a lot of low carb bread recipes trying to find something close to the “carby” bread I once loved, and you have solved my dilemma. This bread is better than the carb-laden kind (in my opinion) and I am so happy to be able to enjoy toast, sandwiches and any other idea that comes to my mind for utilizing this bread. I can’t wait to make another batch because I didn’t leave this one in quite long enough, but I am certain of it’s potential! God bless you.
I made this bread today and it is AMAZING!!! I’ve been eating paleo, gluten free and dairy free since early November and the ONLY thing I have missed is bread. I can’t believe how light and moist this delicious bread is. It was wonderful warm and smeared with a layer of sunbutter and it made an amazing tuna sandwich later when it was cooled down. The only thing I would do differently next time is try not to eat the entire loaf in one day!! Thank you so much Elena. It’s PERFECT!
hi Adriana! I tried this recipe but tweaked it a bit since I don’t have arrowroot flour. I used rice flour for the meantime cause it’s the only one I have here. Since I also have only one egg available, I reduced the other ingredients to 1/4 of the original. The recipe yielded one mini loaf bread. Tasty and tender texture like regular flour bread with a little gritty texture cause I just ground slivered almond in a seed grinder. But still loved the outcome. and it smells fantastic during baking. I posted the image in my instagram at http://instagram.com/karenieavila. Thank you for sharing your recipes to the world.:-)

I’m a big fan of yours and have, over the five years since our family went gluten-free/Paleo, used many of your recipes with great success, especially those for the Jewish holidays. Our recent discovery was your chocolate hamentaschen recipe (https://elanaspantry.com/chocolate-raspberry-hamantaschen/) – which was very well received by our family, our synagogue (and not just the other GF individuals), and most of the kids in both girls’ school classes. And it really was so easy to make, which I especially appreciated, since we always make a lot to share!
I want to marry you because of this recipe (okay, maybe a tad dramatic). I only had tapioca starch so made it according to your instructions and subbed the flaxseed meal for chia because that was all I had but this bread turned out perfectly. I’m not exactly paleo and I’m generally a good cook, bad baker but this worked even for the inept baker like me. Thank you so much! Next time, I think I’ll try topping it with sunflower seeds just for an extra bite!
This is the second incarnation of Paleo Bread attempted by the TGIPaleo gang, and they’ve made a few adjustments and seem to have gotten the hang of this. This version keeps the coconut flour but does away with the flax and the arrowroot flour. Instead they’re using egg whites and applesauce to get the job done, and they seem pretty pleased with themselves, as we have yet to locate a third version. Try both and see which one you like best, because they really are different styles of the same sort of bread.

This spring, Dr Cordain did an interview answering ten questions about the basics of The Paleo Diet®. To start your New Years out right, we wanted to share his answers with you. We hope you enjoy! - The Paleo Diet Team 1. The Paleo diet can be traced to a 1975 book by Walter Voegtlin, but, correct me if I’m wrong, you are responsible for bringing this diet to popularity in your 2002 book “The Paleo Diet.” Can you me about your...
Hi Maya, I have made this twice and the first was actually closer than the second! The second one was raised really well when I put the foil on for the last 10-15 mins of cook time and when I took it out 12 mins later it had completely fallen! Now it is almost wet in the center though there are air pockets in it, it’s very odd. The first loaf was pretty flat the whole time and I am pretty sure that was because I didn’t have my egg whites whipped enough but they were spot on for the second loaf. I am also thinking it might be my baking powder after reading some of the comments. I plan to try again and just use a baking soda/cream of tartar mix rather than the baking powder. Any other suggestions? Anyone? LOL!
Whenever I come across a recipe and I want to convert it to grams I use the amount on say my bag of almond flour and calculate it out. My almond flour weighs out to be 112 grams per cup so for this recipe you would use 224 grams of almond flour (I use superfine Kirkland brand from Costco and I’ve also used Bob’s Red Mill superfine and they both work equally well). The 2 tablespoons of coconut flour is a small amount so I wouldn’t bother weighing that out. As for the flax seed, I buy mine whole and measure accordingly and grind in my coffee grinder. 

Have to laugh with me — I mixed it all up in my cuisinart, popped it in the perfect sized, non stick bread pan and put it in the oven for 5 minutes before I realized I’d forgotten the Apple Cider Vinegar! (Which helps the baking soda do its work, right?) I grabbed it out, poured the vinegar on top and stirred it up and shoved it back in. It came out fine, believe it or not! I’m having earth balance margarine on it, with some honey, Yum.
The most updated recipe worked perfectly! I used every ingredient and the amount called for with the Magic Line loaf pan. The one and only thing I did differently was I needed to add 10 extra minutes of baking checking the bread with a toothpick every 5 minutes after initially checking at 30 min. I live in western Mass and the weather was humid and hot when I made this, maybe that has something to do it.
Kim, thanks for your comment. I’ve baked this bread at both sea level and 8,000 feet and haven’t found any need for adjustments. The issue is likely the size pan that you baked the bread in. If you use the recommended size baking pan, the bread will be the proper height. If you use a pan that is bigger than the one I used, your bread will rise, but it won’t fill the pan to the right height. Here’s an example that might help –if you place 1/2 cup of water in a 1/2 measuring cup it will be 100% full to the top of the cup. If you put the same 1/2 cup of water in a 1 cup measuring cup it will only fill it 50% and will only be 1/2 full in height. That’s why a loaf pan that is too large doesn’t work for this recipe when it comes to the bread “rising” and the height of the loaf :-)
I am having trouble finding the pan you recommended, it appears to be sold out everywhere I’ve looked??? I can find the 5.5×3.0 and the 9×5. Have you tested different sizes and if so do you have a cooking recommendation? I have tried gluten free recipes in regular loaf pan before and they never turn out….I realize I need a proper pan! Thanks for the help.
^ Ramsden, C.; Faurot, K.; Carrera-Bastos, P.; Cordain, L.; De Lorgeril, M.; Sperling, L. (2009). "Dietary Fat Quality and Coronary Heart Disease Prevention: A Unified Theory Based on Evolutionary, Historical, Global, and Modern Perspectives". Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine. 11 (4): 289–301. doi:10.1007/s11936-009-0030-8. PMID 19627662.
For all the recipes claiming to be the best paleo or Keto bread, I think yours is! I have found your recipe very helpful in satisfying keto cravings for bread. I am a personal chef and now a hero to my low-carb clients. I’d like to share this recipe in a cooking Keto article for our United States Personal Chef Association member magazine. Would you mind? It would of course be attributed to you/your site!
Even if eating only foods available to hunter–gatherers in the Paleolithic made sense, it would be impossible. As Christina Warinner of the University of Zurich emphasizes in her 2012 TED talk, just about every single species commonly consumed today—whether a fruit, vegetable or animal—is drastically different from its Paleolithic predecessor. In most cases, we have transformed the species we eat through artificial selection: we have bred cows, chickens and goats to provide as much meat, milk and eggs as possible and have sown seeds only from plants with the most desirable traits—with the biggest fruits, plumpest kernels, sweetest flesh and fewest natural toxins. Cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts and kale are all different cultivars of a single species, Brassica oleracea; generation by generation, we reshaped this one plant's leaves, stems and flowers into wildly different arrangements, the same way we bred Welsh corgis, pugs, dachshunds, Saint Bernards and greyhounds out of a single wolf species. Corn was once a straggly grass known as teosinte and tomatoes were once much smaller berries. And the wild ancestors of bananas were rife with seeds.
Paleoista: Gain Energy, Get Lean, and Feel Fabulous With the Diet You Were Born to Eat by Nell Stephenson. Paleoista is not only a how-to book, it is also a glimpse into the life of a woman who gives advice on how to eat this way, and lives the life, day in and day out. The author's websites: NellStephenson.com Nutrition & Fitness and Paleoista.com. To be published May 1, 2012.
I just tried this for the first time tonight and followed the recipe exactly. I bought all of your recommended brands of ingredients, including the right sized pan. The texture is great (though the bread is still hot out of the oven!) and the taste is pretty good. Let’s face it, it’s not yeasted/gluten bread. But it’s definitely a very acceptable substitute. I really appreciate the nutritional content of this bread. Most of the commercial gluten-free products make me crazy with their nutritional emptiness. Looking forward to trying more of your recipes.
Hi Valerie, so funny, I just got asked this question! 🙂 Here’s what I said, “…almond flour is a lot less absorbent than coconut flour (like A LOT). I know a few people have tried using oat flour with success, but I worry that almond flour would not be sufficient for absorbing the almond butter and creating a nice, firm texture. I’d recommend starting with about 3/4 cup almond flour, and experimenting as needed.” Hope this helps!
Cordain explains that high intake of fruits and vegetables is one of best ways to reduce chances of cancer and heart disease. He notes that protein has twice the calorie burning effect of fat and carbs and is more satiating than both. He explains that starch, fats, sugars, and salts together cause us to keep eating. So if we limit our diet to fruits and vegetables and/or meat, we’ll stop eating when we’re full. And if you stop eating when you’re full, you’ll lose weight and won’t get fat. And as you lose weight, your cholesterol will improve (regardless of what you eat). This all makes sense and can’t really be disputed. If you want to lose weight, the Paleo diet will get you there and probably quickly. But Cordain’s hypothesis applied to long-term health falls short.
Almond flour is often considered the “all purpose” flour of the paleo baking world. It’s used to make things like bread, cakes, and cookies with good results. The only caveat I have is that using almond flour alone can result in a dense baked good, so I typically use almond flour (or almond meal) in conjunction with arrowroot starch, tapioca flour, and/or flaxseed meal to lighten up the texture.
I just wanted to mention, because I don’t believe it has come up yet, that I substituted ground sunflower seeds for the almond flour (they are much cheaper and I have successfully used them in many almond flour recipes!) however I noticed something very odd this time… the bread was green when it came out of the oven! I was stumped, but after some research, found out that baking soda reacts with the chlorophyll in sunflower seeds and turns them green.
I have made this now about 10 times. The first time I made them too thin. I use two muffin top pans (6 wells in each) and I filled 8 the first time. Then I went to six and it was perfect. My grandson is so happy we have bread again. Everyone loves it slathered in kerrygold butter. I make a double batch to get 12 pieces. I also make a single batch with garlic, extra salt and Parmesan cheese in the batter. I sprinkled some cheese on top of the batter before baking. The garlic bread was so delicious! Thanks for a super simple delicious recipe that I can make in five minutes.

I’ve been looking for a great gf, low carb, yeasted bread recipe and this one is perfect! I didn’t have enough flaxseed meal so subbed chia seeds and didn’t grind them but it turned out fine. Didn’t have whey protein isolate so used collagen powder. I like a lot of texture so added 1/4 rounded cup of pumpkin seeds and same amount of sunflower seeds. My loaf rose to only about 2 1/2″ high but it has a nice crumb and wonderful flavor. Definitely my bread of choice now!!
Thank you so much for this recipe. I have experimented with various paleo bread recipes and this one is the best, yet! Best sandwich slices. Best toast. Best warm out of the oven take to the table bread. I wasn’t sure it would rise and when it did I did the happy dance around my kitchen. FYI, I didn’t have tapioca starch so I used Trader Joe’s gluten free flour (which includes tapioca starch) as a substitute. I also lined the glass pan with parchment after I greased it. Fluffy, flavorful, delicious! Not just good paleo sandwich bread. Good bread, period.

Hi Tanya, thanks for your comment and sorry to hear you are having trouble finding the loaf pan. If you bake this bread in a 9×5 inch loaf pan it will be very flat, as this recipe only makes enough batter to fill the pan halfway. I haven’t tested this in other pans, so I’m not sure what would work. If you experiment with mini loaf pans please let us know how it goes, that might work and I’m curious to hear about it!


I am new to walking the Primal path, but was already missing bread and sandwiches. Thanks so much for this recipe. I made it today and it came out great. After reading all the reviews about the center not baking, I inserted my oven thermometer into the center of the loaf after 25 minutes of baking. Then I set the thermometer to alarm when it reached 195 degrees F. (That is halfway between the 190 degrees I use for white bread and 200 degrees I use for banana bread.) The center was nicely baked. Hopefully this will help others who try this recipe.

LOREN CORDAIN, Ph.D., is one of the top global researchers in the area of evolutionary medicine. Generally acknowledged as the world's leading expert on the Paleolithic diet, he is a professor in the Health and Exercise Science Department at Colorado State University. Dr. Cordain and his research have been featured on Dateline NBC and in the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, and other media. He is the author of The Paleo Diet and The Paleo Diet Cookbook, among other books, and makes regular media and speaking appearances worldwide.


WOW! WOW! WOW! Did I say Wow! This is exactly what I have been looking for, a low carb bread as I am a diabetic. I did not know that arrowroot is a carb but I calculated that 1/2c. equals 72 g. of carbohydrates roughly. So not too bad. I have enjoyed every recipe I have tried so far. I can’t tell you how happy I am that I accidentally discovered your website. Keep up the good work!! I just can’t stop making everything I see. ?


— HOW I WORK IT: I am 10 years into maintaining my 35 lb weight loss, and it continues to be a conscious effort. Right now the best way I am able to include Elana’s recipes into my post-weight-loss and weight-maintenance life is by following the gaps diet, which includes hearty soups as the basis for eating, filled in by some nut baked goods. Enjoy!
I made this bread tonight and it turned out pretty good. It’s tender and has a good crumb. I didn’t have the problems that some had with holes or rawness in the middle. I used four eggs, subbed tapioca flour for the coconut flour since I was out of coconut, and subbed Trader Joe’s ground almond meal (I pretty much exclusively use the TJ’s almond meal when almond flour is called for, and have never had problems). The bread does taste a bit too strongly of soda for my tastebuds, so maybe baking powder would work just as well. I’ll try it next time and report here. My loaf did not rise as much as the photo shows. Comparing the size of the loaf to the jam jar (which is a typical small jam jar) and the spoon in the photo, I think the loaf was probably baked in a smaller pan than the one called for in the recipe. Thus it looks like it rose a lot when it really was just baked in a smaller pan.

Coconut Flour: As Lexi pointed out Coconut Flour is not a 1:1 ratio. Coconut flour absorbs a LOT of liquid, so you have to either combine it with other flours in light quantaties, or use 6 eggs for every 1/2 cup of flour. Yes, I said 6 eggs with every ONE HALF cup of coconut flour. You can also use various liquids. Either way, it needs to have the same consistency as it would if you used the almond flour, it should be thin like pancake. If not it will out very dense.
I have made these so many times in the last few weeks and have shared the recipe with many friends. They are delicious and so easy! I don’t really like the taste of Palm shortening, so I used coconut oil, softening it in the microwave, not melting. But don’t put it in wet ingredients because the coldness from the eggs will harden it again. Mix with dry ingredients, working out all the lumps with hands and distributing it evenly. I double the recipe and then separate it. I have added rosemary or dill or jalapenos/bacon/cheese to batter. So delicious. I am going to try more variations and add other herbs as I go. Thank you so much for such a great recipe. I was missing bread and these are perfect for chicken salad, tuna salad, turkey burgers, etc. And…. I save so much money because the gluten free breads in the grocery store are so expensive.
I wanted to try your recipe and I found almost all the ingredients here where I live. But I’m still stuck on the isolate whey protein. Could I skip to another protein, like pea protein? Do you think it alters rising/taste? I’ve never baked anything with this powder proteins, and since this pea protein happens to be the one easily on reach, I was wondering if you could help me sorting this out.
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